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What are the three layers of the neural plate and there derivatives?
- 1. Endoderm: viscera, liver, respiratory system
- 2. Mesoderm: bones/muscles, excretory and circulatory system
- 3. Ectoderm: nervous system, sensory organs, and epidermis
True or False: Brain formation begins when the Neural Tube closes?
_________ _______: thickening of ectoderm on surface of the embryo
________ ________: edges of plate fold and edges grow toward each other.
_______ _________: when folds touch; cervical region 1st
_______ _________: cells adjacent to Neural Tube that separate from tube and ectoderm.
- 1. Neural Plate
- 2. Neural Groove
- 3. Neural Tube
- 4. Neural creast
_________ _________: Neural Tube Defects =inferior neural tube does not close.
________ ________ ________: ↓ Cellular proliferation.
____________: lack of Folic Acid =failure of cranial apsect of neuraltune to close.
- 1.Spina bifida
- 2.Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
1. Telencephalon= ________ _________
2. Diencephalon= _________, _______ _______, _________
3. Mesencephalon= _______, _______, _______
4. Rhombencephalon= _________
5. Metencephalon= ________, _________
6. Myencephalon= __________
- 1. Telencephalon= Cerebral Hemispheres
- 2. Diencephalon= thalmus, basal ganglia, hypothalamus
- 3. Mesencephalon= midbrain, tectum, tegmentum
- 4. Rhombencephalon= hindbrain
- 5. Metencephalon= pons, cerebellum
- 6. Myencephalon= medulla
Describe the 5 stages of Cell Proliferation resulting in 2 new daughter cells.
- 1. Cell in ventricular zone extends a process up to pia
- 2. Nucleus of call migrates up toward pial surface &DNA is copied
- 3. Nucleus, with 2 complete copies of genetic instructions, settles back to surface
- 4. Cell retracts its process from pial surface
- 5. Cell divides in two =
Describe the two steps of Neuron Migration:
Is cortex formed "outside-in" or "inside-out"?
Is neuronal differentiation predetermined?
- 1. Send slender process to brain surface and hoistselves along
- 2. Climb along radial glia (long cells stretching fromcenter of brain to surface)
- 3. "inside-out"
- 4. No, neurons differentiate after reaching their final location; function depends on area of brain to which neurons migrate
___________: axons growing togeter, stick together
________: protein that attracts neurons in spinal cord to cross the midline
________: protein that repels the axon to grow away from the midline
During synapse formation, what chemical "marks the spot"?
_________ _________: Initially, each muscle receives input from several alpha motor neurons, but during development, all but one are lost. This establishes an efficient one-to-one relationship.
_________ __________: Referring to synapse plasticity, changing from one pattern to another. Synaptic competition causes modification resulting in "neurons that fire together, wire together".
_________: selective cell death
___________: development of new neurons.