Neurophysiology

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  1. What are the three layers of the neural plate and there derivatives?
    • 1. Endoderm: viscera, liver, respiratory system
    • 2. Mesoderm: bones/muscles, excretory and circulatory system
    • 3. Ectoderm: nervous system, sensory organs, and epidermis
  2. True or False: Brain formation begins when the Neural Tube closes?
    True
  3. _________ _______: thickening of ectoderm on surface of the embryo
    ________ ________: edges of plate fold and edges grow toward each other.
    _______ _________: when folds touch; cervical region 1st
    _______ _________: cells adjacent to Neural Tube that separate from tube and ectoderm.
    • 1. Neural Plate
    • 2. Neural Groove
    • 3. Neural Tube
    • 4. Neural creast
  4. _________ _________: Neural Tube Defects =inferior neural tube does not close.
    ________ ________ ________: ↓ Cellular proliferation.

    ____________: lack of Folic Acid =failure of cranial apsect of neuraltune to close.
    • 1.Spina bifida
    • 2.Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
    • 3.Anencephaly
  5. Brain Derivatives:
    1. Telencephalon= ________ _________
    2. Diencephalon= _________, _______ _______, _________
    3. Mesencephalon= _______, _______, _______
    4. Rhombencephalon= _________
    5. Metencephalon= ________, _________
    6. Myencephalon= __________
    • 1. Telencephalon= Cerebral Hemispheres
    • 2. Diencephalon= thalmus, basal ganglia, hypothalamus
    • 3. Mesencephalon= midbrain, tectum, tegmentum
    • 4. Rhombencephalon= hindbrain
    • 5. Metencephalon= pons, cerebellum
    • 6. Myencephalon= medulla
  6. Describe the 5 stages of Cell Proliferation resulting in 2 new daughter cells.
    • 1. Cell in ventricular zone extends a process up to pia
    • 2. Nucleus of call migrates up toward pial surface &DNA is copied
    • 3. Nucleus, with 2 complete copies of genetic instructions, settles back to surface
    • 4. Cell retracts its process from pial surface
    • 5. Cell divides in two =
  7. Describe the two steps of Neuron Migration:

    Is cortex formed "outside-in" or "inside-out"?

    Is neuronal differentiation predetermined?
    • 1. Send slender process to brain surface and hoistselves along
    • 2. Climb along radial glia (long cells stretching fromcenter of brain to surface)
    • 3. "inside-out"
    • 4. No, neurons differentiate after reaching their final location; function depends on area of brain to which neurons migrate
  8. ___________: axons growing togeter, stick together
    Fasciculation
  9. Axon guidance:
    ________: protein that attracts neurons in spinal cord to cross the midline
    ________: protein that repels the axon to grow away from the midline
    • 1. Netrin
    • 2. Robo
  10. During synapse formation, what chemical "marks the spot"?
    Agrin
  11. _________ _________: Initially, each muscle receives input from several alpha motor neurons, but during development, all but one are lost. This establishes an efficient one-to-one relationship.
    Synapse Elimination
  12. _________ __________: Referring to synapse plasticity, changing from one pattern to another. Synaptic competition causes modification resulting in "neurons that fire together, wire together".
    Hebbian Modification
  13. _________: selective cell death
    Apoptosis
  14. ___________: development of new neurons.
    Neurogenesis

Card Set Information

Author:
mizzoupt
ID:
35735
Filename:
Neurophysiology
Updated:
2010-09-19 17:34:20
Tags:
Development Nervous System
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Description:
Development of Nervous System
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