DH Theory

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DH Theory
2010-09-19 15:36:27

wilkins chapter 2 key words
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  1. an artificially generated collection of particles suspended in air
  2. microbial aerosol
    suspension of particles in the air that consists partially or wholly of microorganisms; it may be capable of causing an infection
  3. diminished reactivity to specific antigens; inability to react to skin-test antigen (even if person is infected with the organism tested) because of immunosuppression.
  4. antibody
    a soluble protein molecule produced and secreted by body cells in response to an antigen; it is capable of binding to that specific antigen
  5. a substance that is capable, under appropriate conditions, of inducing a specific immune response and of reacting with the products of that response, that is, with the specific antibody
  6. carrier
    a person who harbors a specific infectious agent in the absence of discernible clinical disease and serves as a potential source of infection. The carrier state may be temporary, transient or chronic
  7. an individual who harbors pathogenic organisms without clinically recognizable symptoms; a carrier may infect those he/she contacts
    asymptomatic carrier
  8. CDCP
    United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
  9. CFU
    Colony forming unit
  10. the time during which an infectious agent may be transferred directly or indirectly from an infected person to another person; the communicable period my include or overlap the incubation period.
    communicable period of disease
  11. droplet
    diminutive drop, such as the particles of moisture expelled while coughing, sneezing or speaking that may carry infectious agents
  12. ELISA or EIA
    an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; a loaboratory test to detect antibody in blood serum
  13. a laboratory test for antibody that is more specific than EIA and is used to validate seropositive reactions to the EIA
    Western Blot (WB)
  14. Endemic
    the constant presence of disease or infectious agent within a geographic area
  15. widespread occurrence of cases of an illness in a community or region; greater than the expected number of cases fro the particular population
  16. fomite or fomes
    an inanimate object or material on which disease-producing agents (microorganisms) may be conveyed
  17. HCP and DHCP
    healthcare personnel and dental healthcare personnel
  18. an infection associated with or acquired during a medical or surgical intervention
    healthcare-associated infection
  19. nosocomial
    limited to an adverse infectious outcome occurring in a hospital
  20. the resistance that a person has against disease; it may be natural or acquired
  21. passive immunity
    short-duration immunity either naturally attained by transplacental transfer from the mother or artificially acquired by inoculation of specific protective antibodies
  22. immunity either naturally attained by infection, with or without clinical manifestations, or artificially acquired by inoculation of the agent in a killed, modified or variant form; in response, the body produces its own antibodies; usually lasts for years.
    active immunity
  23. incubation period
    the time interval between the initial contact with an infectious agent and the appearance of the first clinical sign or symptom of the disease
  24. a state caused by the invasion, development or multiplication of an infectious agent into the body
  25. primary infection
    first time; no preexisting antibodies
  26. persistent infection following a primary infection in which the causative agent remains inactive within certain cells
    latent infection
  27. recurrent infection
    symptomatic reactivation of a latent infection
  28. organism capable of producing an infection
    infectious agent
  29. jaundice
    yellowness of skin, sclerae, mucous membranes, and excretions due to hyperbilirubinemia and deposition of bile pigments. also called icterus
  30. the microscopic living organisms of a region
  31. pandemic
    widespread epidemic usually affecting the population of an extensive region, several countries, or sometimes the entire globe
  32. injection by a route other than the alimentary tract, such as subcutaneous, intramuscular, or intravenous
  33. parotitis
    inflammation of the parotid gland
  34. a virus, microorganism or other substance that cause disease
  35. opportunistic pathogen
    capable of causing disease only when the host's resistance is lowered
  36. by way of or through the skin
  37. permucusal
    by way of or through a mucous membrane
  38. protein particle lacking nucleic acid that has been implicated as the cause of certain neurodegenerative diseases, an example is Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease
  39. prodrome
    early or premonitory symptom
  40. process by which viruses reproduce and multiply
  41. retrovirus
    virus with RNA as its core genetic material; requires the enzyme reverse transcriptase to convert its RNA into proviral DNA
  42. the identification of disease by serum markers of that specific condition
    serologic diagnosis
  43. seroconversion
    after exposure to the etiologic agent of a disease, the blood changes from negative to positive for the serum marker for that disease; the time interval for conversion is specific to each disease
  44. a specific fining (such as an antibody or antigen) by laboratory blood analysis that identifies an existing disease state
    serum marker
  45. shedding
    presence of virus in body secretions, in excretions, or in body surface lesions with potential for transmission
  46. an approach to infection control to protect DHCP and patients from pathogens that can be spread by blood or any other body fluid, secretion or excretion (except sweat) regardless of whether they contain blood.
    standard precautions
  47. STD
    Sexually transmitted diesase
  48. continuing scrutiny of all aspects of occurrence and spread of disease that are pertinent to effective control
    surveillance of disease
  49. transmission (horizontal)
    passage of infectious agent from one individual to another
  50. passage of an infectious agent from one generation to another by breast milk or across the placenta
    vertical transmission
  51. universal precautions
    an approach to infection control in which all human blood and certain human body fluids are treated as if known to be infectious for HIV HBV and other blood-borne pathogens
  52. a carrier that transfers an infectious microorganism from on host to another
  53. biologic vector
    an arthropod, insect or other living carrier in whose body the infecting organism multiplies before becoming infective to the recipient
  54. a substance or object that serves as an intermediate means by which an infectious agent is transported and introduced into a susceptible host through a suitable portal of entry
  55. virion
    complete virus particle made up of the nucleoid and capsid
  56. the degree of pathogenicity or disease-evoking power of infectious agent
  57. virus
    a subcellular genetic entity capable of gaining entrance into a limited range of living cells; a virus contains either DNA or RNA but not both
  58. the time between exposure resulting in infection and the presence of detectable serum antibody; antibody test is negative but infectious agent is transmissible during this time
    window period
  59. AIDS
    acquired immunodeficiency syndrom
  60. AZT (ZDV)
    zidovudine, retrovir; drug used for the treatment of HIV infection and AIDS; first antiviral drug approved by the FDA
  61. CD4+
    T helper lymphocyte; primary target cell for HIV infection; CD4+ count decrease with the severity of HIV related illness
  62. DNA
    deoxyribonucleic acid; a nucleic acid found in a cell nucleus; a carrier of genetic information
  63. HAART
    highly active antiretroviral therapy containing several antiretroviral medications the combination has been more effective than monotherapy in the treatment of HIV
  64. HIV
    human immunodeficiency virus causes AIDS
  65. HIV-1 antiboyd
    antibody to human immunodeficiency virus type 1; antibody can be detected in blood 6 to 8 weeks after infection
  66. HL
    hairy leukoplakia
  67. IDU
    injection-drug user
  68. KS
    kaposi's sarcom; a malignant vascular tumor; an opportunistic neoplasm that may occur in people with HIV infection
  69. LAV
    lymphadenopathy-associated virus; one of the former names of HIV
  70. MMWR
    morbidity and mortality weekly report by CDCP
  71. PCP
    pneumocystis pneumonia, caused by pneumocystis carinii an opportunistic infection that occurs in people with HIV infection
  72. PGL
    persistent generalized lymphadenopathy
  73. PWA
    person with AIDS
  74. RNA
    ribonucleic acid a nucleic acid found in cytoplasn and in the nuclei of certain cells; RNA directs the synthesis of proteins and replaces DNA as a carrier of genetic codes in some viruses