bio chpt6.txt

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bio chpt6.txt
2010-09-19 15:55:45

chapter 6 bio
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  1. Prokaryotic cell
    nucleoid, ribosomes, plasma membrane, cell wall, capsule, flagella, pili
  2. Eukaryotic cell (animal)
    nucleus, plasma membrane, ribosome, golgi apparatus, cytosol/cytoplasm, lysosome, endoplasmic reticulum (rough and smooth), flagellum, centrosome, cytoskeleton, peroxisome, microvilli, mitochondrion
  3. Eukaryotic cell (plant)
    central vacuole, cell wall, chloroplast, plasmadesmata, nucleus, centrosome, golgi apparatus, mitochondrion, peroxisome, plasma membrane, ER
  4. Plasma membrane
    selective barrier, specific transport of nutrients and waste products, attachment/communication w/ environment

    some proteins are inside plasma membrane and most of the proteins are receptors
  5. Ribosomes
    complexes of proteins and RNA that carry out translation; make proteins using genetic information
  6. Nucleus
    contains most of a cell's DNA
  7. Nucleolus
    site of rRNA synthesis and ribosomal assembly
  8. Chromatin
    DNA + proteins (DNA folded around proteins)
  9. Exocytosis?
    secretion of proteins from transport vesicles through plasma membrane
  10. lysosome
    digests macromolecules; hydrolyze proteins, fats, polysaccharides, nucleic acids; phagocytosis AND autophagy (recycle/destroy components of cell such as damaged organelles)
  11. Mitochondria
    site of cellular respiration, creates ATP (adenosine triphosphate), has some DNA (mother's)

    2 membranes, smooth outer, folded inner (adds to surface area)
  12. Chloroplasts
    found in plants and algae, is the site of photosynthesis; contains chloropyll (green pigment), contains thylakoids (stacks of granums), stroma (internal fluid)
  13. Cytoskeleton
    network of fibers within cytoplasm, organizes and maintains cell structure, has three structures: microtubules, microfilaments, intermediate filament, has "monorails" for vesicles
  14. Phalloidin
    mushroom poison that binds to cytoskeleton and causes paralysis
  15. Microvilli
    increases surface area of a cell
  16. Plasmodesmata
    found in plant cells, channels that perforate cell walls; water and small solutes can pass from cell to cell (sometimes proteins and DNA too)
  17. Microtubules
    thickest, serve as intracellular highways for transporting vesicles and organelles, control beating of cilia and flagella

    hollow, shape and support the cell
  18. Cilia
    hairlike projection on surface of cell (controlled by microtubules), helps move by power strokes and recovery strokes
  19. Flagella
    tail-like structures that help move cells
  20. Dysein
    motor protein, drives the bending movements of ceilium or flagellum
  21. Extracellular Matrix (ECM)
    only in animal cells, equivalent of cell wall in plant cells, helps support, adhesion, movement and regulation; binds to receptor proteins
  22. Microfilaments
    also called actin filaments, helps support cell's shape, makes up core of microvilli of intestinal cells, contains protein myosin and actin, found mostly in muscle cells

    They are responsible for cell locomotion and the cell’s structural characteristics
  23. Amoeboid Movement
    contractions brought by actin and myosin, causes pseudopodia
  24. Tight junctions
    membranes of neighboring cells pressed together, prevents leakage of extracellular fliud
  25. Desmosomes (anchoring junctions)
    anchoring junctions, fastens cells together into strong sheets

  26. Gap junctions
    communicating junctions, provide cyplasmic channels between adjacent cells

  27. Pili
    surface appendages that allow a bacteria to stick to surfaces
  28. Nuceloid Region
    location where DNA of a prokaryotic is
  29. Mitosis
    cell division
  30. Golgi apparatus
    protein modification and sorting; cisternal maturation
  31. Smooth ER
    lipid synthesis, calcium ion storage, and poison detoxification
  32. Rough ER
    protein synthesis; manufactors cellular membranes by adding proteins and phopholipids to its own membranes
  33. Free ribosomes
    makes proteins that function WITHIN the cytosol
  34. bound ribosomes
    make proteins that function within endomembrane system or secreted through cell
  35. Pulse phase
    tagged cells with high concentration of radioactive amino acids
  36. chase phase
    unlabeled amino acids
  37. What are the difference between plant and animal cells?
    chloroplast, cellulose cell wall, central vacuole in plants

    centriole in animals
  38. Differences between prokaryotes and eukaryotes?
    nucleoid in prokaryotes

    lysosome, nucleolus and mitochondria in eukaryotes
  39. Intermediate filaments
    rope-like structures that anchor organelles and intercellular junctions called desmosomes; specialize in bearing tension

  40. Peroxisome
    produces H2O2 as a byproduct
  41. Collagen
    fibers of glycoproteins found in ECM that provide structural support

    found in animals
  42. Desmosomes
    protein membranes that strengthen adhesion between adjacent cells to protect against pulling forces