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what are the objectives for preventing transmissible disease?
- protect patients and dental personnel
- maintain healthy facilities
- organized system
- prevent cross contamination
infection control in which all human blood and certain human body fluids are treated as if known to be infectious for HIV HBV and other blood borne pathogens.
infection control to protect dental health care personnel and patients from pathogens spread thru blood or other body fluids (except sweat)
what does the standard precautions apply to?
- body fluids
- nonintact skin
- mucous membranes
what are transmissions that are covered with standard precautions
- airborne transmission
- skin contact
what are the microoranisms of a new born baby?
none, new born oral cavity is sterile
how are microorganisms transmitted to the infant?
- from mother-breastfeeding
- as infant grows always being introduced to adult microorangims
- salivary bacteria
where does the salivary bacteria come from
- mostly dorsum of the tongue
- mucous membranes
- gingival/periodontal tissues
where do you find high counts of microorganisms?
- periodontal pockets
- carious lesions
what are the three types of infection potentials?
- intact mucous membrane-protects against infection
- microorganisms present in oral cavity-pathogenic, nonpathogenic and transient
- patient carrier
what are the essential features fro disease transmission
- infectious agent
- port of exit
- mode of transmission
- port of entry
- susceptible host
what is an infectious agent
what is a reservoir
- water (from tubing)
what is a port of exit
- secretions-saliva blood
- skin and mucous membrane
what is are the three types of transmission?
- direct contact
- indirect contact
what is a port of entry
- mucous membrane
- GI tract
- respiratory tract
- broken skin
what are some examples of a susceptible host
- medically compromised
does the presence of an infectious agent always lead to an infection or disease?
what are the 7 factors influencing development of infection?
- presence of infectious agent
- numbers of organism
- duration of exposure
- virulence of organism
- immune status of host
- general physical health of host
- nutritional status of the host
what are the factors that alter normal defenses?
- abnormal physical conditions
- systemic disease
- drug therapy
- prostheses and transplants
what are examples of abnormal physical conditions that alter the normal defenses?
what are some examples of systemic diseases that alter the normal defenses?
diabetes mellitus, alcoholism, leukemia, glomerulonephritis, AIDS
what are some examples of drug therapy that alter the normal defenses?
steroids, chemotherapeutic agents
what are some examples of prostheses or transplants that alter the normal defenses
- joint replacement, cardiac proshtesis
- organ transplant
what are dust borne organisms, how are they set into motion, and how are they controlled?
- large airborne particles
- opening and closing of doors
- surface disinfection
what is the size of aerosol and what forms do they take?
- less than 50 um and usually less than 5 um
- solid or liquid (usually invisible)
where do the aerosol particles get trapped when breathed in?
- larger particles in upper respiratory tree
- small particles of 5 um or less, deep into lungs
what type of airborne infection can be suspended in air for long periods of time?
what is spatter?
- airborne infection that can be seen
- it is larger and heavier then aerosols, it is greater than 50 um
- it sprays on objects floor and people
what type of airborne infection cannot stay suspended in the air for long periods of time because of its size?
what are the origins of aerosols?
- breathing, speaking, coughing, sneezing
- intraoral procedures
- handpieces, ultrasonic, air/water spray
when is the production of aerosols increased by tremendous proportions?
when using air/water spray (handpieces or ultrasonics)
what are the contents of aerosols?
- microorganisms-single or clumped
- particles from cavity preparation
- ultrasonic scaling
where is the concentration of aerosols the greatest and how do aerosols travel?
- greats closes to instrumentation and they get lesser as the distance is increased
- travel with air currents, can go from room to room
what are 5 ways to prevent transmission of aerosols?
- preprocedural oral hygiene measures
- interruption of transmission
- clean water
- protect clinician
- protect patient
what are the preprocedural measures to prevent transmission of aerosols?
brush floss and mouthrinse
what are the methods of interruption of transmission of aerosols?
- rubber dam
- manual instrumentation
what are the prevention of transmission of aerosols for clean water?
- EPA standards for drinking water
- run water thru the lines
- start of day 2 min
- between pt 30 seconds
how do you prevent transmission of aerosols for the clinician and the patient
- clinician-PPE masks, eyewear