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how is tuberculosis transmitted?
- direct inoculation
why doesn't standard precautions protect from tuberculosis?
the droplet nuclei are small enough to pass through masks and the remain suspended in the air for long periods of time
what disease does tuberculosis usually define?
what kind of measures are to be taken when a patient has tuberculosis
airborne infection isolation
what are the factors affecting transmission of tuberculosis?
- degree to which the infected person produces infectious droplets
- amount and duration of exposure
- susceptibility of recipient
when is the maximum communicability of tuberculosis?
before being diagnosed, person may have severe cough and other respiratory symptoms
what are the predisposing factors for tuberculosis
- debilitatin/immunosuppressive condition
- systemic conditions
- specialized prescriptions
what are the predisposing systemic conditions for tuberculosis?
- congenital heart disease
- chronic lung disease
how long is the incubation period of tuberculosis?
may be as long as 10 weeks
what are some early symptoms of tuberculosis
- weight loss
- loss of appetite
- tire easy
what are later symptoms of tuberculosis
- temperature elevation in the afternoon
- persistent cough
- night sweats
how is tuberculosis diagnosed?
can tuberculosis be spread while latent?
no it must be active to transmit
how can tuberculosis be eliminated
what are multidrug-resistant TB and extensively drug resistant (XDR) TB?
- multidrug resistant TB-combinations of drugs taken daily or several times a week for six months
- extensively drug resistant TB-more severe resistance, built up resistance to multidrug technique. usually immunosuppressed patients
what are the CDC recommendations for clinical management of tuberculosis?
- periodic risk assessment
- medical history checked
- referral to physician
- deferral of treatment until under control
- urgent care must go to hospital
- DHCP can be sent to be tested if symptoms apply
- separate reception area for pt with TB
tuberculosis is primarily a lesion of the lungs but any organ or tissue may be involved, during the extra and intraoral exams what organs or tissues would you be looking at?
- lymph nodes-lympadenopathy (inflammation)
- oral lesions-ulcers on hard or soft palate and tongue (rare)
what drugs are used in combination to treat TB?
isoniazid, rifampin, pyrazinamide and ethambutol
other than the drugs used in a combination what other way can a patient control the condition
how long after beginning therapy does the bacilli decrease?
a few weeks