The process of selecting, organizing, and interpreting information in order to make sense of our world.
Process of filtering information received by our senses and placing it in a given perceptual context.
Broad world-views or "theories-in-use"
Helps us to quickly make sense of situations
Social Identity Theory
Identity and self-perception are created by membership in social groups + categories.
The process of assigning traits to people based on their membership in a social group or category. (e.g., older people, blonds, etc.)
Pre-judging others because of their traits or membership in given social groups.
Is usually negative but can be positive - people may think I'm smart because of having a Ph.D.
How we perceive the reasons for behaviors.
Internal Attribution - Perception that person's behavior is due to motivation/ability rather than situation or fate.
External Attribution - Perception that behavior is due to situation or fate rather than the person.
Attribution Error: Self-serving Bias
Attributing our successes to internal factors and our failures to external factors.
An incorrect or new definition of the situation (or expectation) that influences behavior consistent with the incorrect or new definition, influencing the definition of the situation to ultimately come true.
The perception that what ultimately happens to us is due to our own actions/internal forces versus external forces, fate, luck, etc, i.e., confidence in our abilities to make it happen.
Primacy - first impressions
Recency - most recent information dominates perceptions
Halo - one trait forms a general impression
Projection - believe other people have the same attitude + beliefs as you
Sensitivity to the feelings, thoughts, and situation of others.
knowledge gained/transmitted via observation + experience
We "operate" on the environment. - alter behavior to maximize positive and minimize adverse consequences.
Learning is viewed as completely dependent or the environment
Occurs when the introduction of a consequence increases or maintains the frequency or future probability of a behavior.
When a consequence or threat of a consequence decreases frequency of behavior occurring.
Punishment is not as effective as positive reinforcement, since the unwanted behavior can re-appear when the punisher is not present.
Social Learning Theory
Behavioral modeling - Observing and modeling behavior of others
Learning behavioral consequences - Observing consequences that others experience
Self-reinforcement - Reinforcing our own behavior with positive actions within our control + Observing and modeling behavior of others
Learning through reflecting upon experience and applying lessons learned to life and job.