Conservation History

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klokot
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35815
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Conservation History
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2010-09-19 18:51:37
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Conservation History
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  1. RACHEL CARSON (1907-1964)
    • 1964 pivotal work on pesticide contamination
    • wrote a book called "silent spring"
    • became a scientist and editor for Fish and Wildlife Service
  2. ALDO LEOPOLD (1887-1948)
    • "Father of Wildlife Ecology"
    • 1924 with bob marshall designated the first forest service wilderness area
    • 1933 published "game management"
    • 1935 helped found the wilderness society
    • 1939 helped found the wildlife society
    • 1949 published "sand county almanac" promoted sustainable land use
  3. BOB MARSHALL (1901-1939)
    • Founder of the wilderness society
    • head of recreation and lands for the US Forest Service
    • Shaped US Forest Service Policy on "wilderness designation and management"
    • one of the first 46ers
    • ardent wilderness advocate
  4. STEWART UDALL-1963
    part of the "quiet crisis" which called for comprehensive environmental planning and environmental regulation by the government
  5. ANNA BOTSFORD COMSTOCK-1854-1930
    • she became a pioneering advocate for outdoor nature study
    • she developed a course study for outdoor learning
    • published "Handbook of Nature Study"
    • inducted into National Wildlife Federation Conservation hall of fame
  6. JOHN JAMES AUDUBON 1785-1851
    • "Father of American Ornithology"
    • was an artist painting life like paintings of birds
  7. GIFFORD PINCHOT 1865-1946
    • first cheif of the US forest service 1905-10
    • advocated conservation of the forest reserves by planned use and renewel
    • coined the term "conservation" as applied to natural resources
  8. JOHN BURROUGHS 1837-1921
    • "Father of the American nature essay"
    • took a job with the U.S Treasury
  9. JAY N. DARLING 1876-1962
    • was a gifted cartoonist and dedicated conservationist
    • appointed head of the U.S Biological Survey
    • key player in the passage of Federal Aid in Wildlife Restoration Act
    • founder of the National Wildlife Federation
  10. JOHN MUIR 1838-1914
    • Muir walked 1,000 miles from Indiana to Fl.
    • became an ardent preservationist for the Sierra Mountains
    • founder of the Sierra Club
  11. WHAT WAS THE FIRST NATIONAL PARK AND UNDER WHAT PRESIDENT?
    • yellowstone national park march 1, 1872
    • president Grant
  12. WHAT ARE THE US CONSERVATION PERIODS?
    • exploitation
    • preservation
    • restoration
    • environmental quality
  13. NATURAL RESOURCE DEVELOPEMENT AND MANAGEMENT
    study of change in human interactions within their natural environment
  14. HENRY DAVID THOREAU / RALPH WALDO EMERSON
    • shaped a new attitude towards wild nature by their romantic and transcedentalist essays
    • nature (emerson)
    • walden (thoreau)
    • the maine woods (thoreau)
  15. STEPHEN MATHER 1867-1930
    founding director of US national park service fought to preserve parks from private exploitation
  16. PRESERVATION
    reservation and maintance of resources by forestalling use and destruction or NON-USE!
  17. WHAT IS THE ROOSEVELT DOCTURINE ON CONSERVATION?
    • all outdoor resources as one integral whole, everythings inerelated
    • conservation as "wise use" as a public responsibility
    • science is the tool for discharging that responsibility
  18. WHAT DID EARLY AGRICULTURE CAUSE?
    reduced human mobility and land clearing resulted in habitat alteration and soil disturbance
  19. WHAT WAS THE TURN OF THE CENTURY?
    individual state departments of conservation primarily concerned with decline of wildlife resources
  20. WHAT DID THE CIVIL WAR IN 1861 CAUSE?
    mass mobilization and destruction of US resources
  21. CONSERVATION
    wise use of our natural resources
  22. WHAT WERE EARLY SOCIETIES CALLED?
    hunters and gathers
  23. WHAT IS AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT?
    primarily irragated agriculture in the arid southwest, woodland agriculture and eastern decidious forests
  24. EXPLAIN EXPLOITATION?
    • after colonies established the economy it was based on trade of North Americas abundant natural resources
    • theory came about that there was always more out west
    • then came market hunting, clear cutting and strip mining
  25. WHO WAS THE FIRST WILDLIFE MANAGER?
    kublai khan 1215-1294
  26. WHAT IS THE MARINE MAMMAL PROTECTION ACT 1972?
    moratorium on taking and importing marine mammals their parts and products
  27. WHAT HAPPENED IN 1940's?
    US Fish and Wildlife service created in the Dept of the interior, divided into regions
  28. UNDER RONALD REAGAN WHAT HAPPENED?
    • faltering world economy & cost of environmental clean up resulted in a retreat of the federal
    • government from the committment to environmental quality of 1980's
    • lack of federal aid left a void in state and local governments
  29. WILDERNESS ACT-1964
    • lyndon johnson
    • a place where vehicles would not be allowed, where no permanent camps or structures could be made
    • where wildlife and its habitat would be kept in as primitive condition as possible
  30. CCC-1933 (CIVILIAN CONSERVATION CORPS)
    2,652 camps in North America did soil and water conservation reforestation etc
  31. SCS-1935 (SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE)
    help farmers and teach them proper farming practices, developed because of the dust bowl
  32. WHAT DID THE RESTORATION OF THE 1930'S INCLUDE?
    • preservation had become restoration soil and water recognized as a natural resource
    • this was because of "the dust bowl" and "the great depression"
  33. WHAT HAPPENED IN THE 1950'S?
    increased urbanization resulted in increase of fragmentation of natural ecosystems
  34. WHATS PART OF SUSTAINABILITY?
    economy, environment and society
  35. WHAT HAPPENED UNDER GEORGE HW BUSH?
    • campaigned as the environmental president
    • was a mixed president
    • had a moratorium on drilling on the US coast
    • spotted owl placed on the endangered species list
    • valdez oil spill response
  36. WHAT WAS THE RESULT OF WWII?
    • atomic energy creates a new source of "clean" electrical power
    • but: nuclear power = bombs
  37. WHAT WAS THE ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT 1973?
    stated that you can list an endangered species but you also have to come up with something to help protect them
  38. WHAT WAS THE MARINE MAMMAL PROTECTION ACT 1972?
    moratorium on taking and importing marine mammals their parts and products
  39. WHO WAS PART OF ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY?
    JFK and Stewart Udall during the 1960's
  40. NEPA 1969, EPA 1970, FEDERAL PLANS MUST?
    • must attain the widest range of benefical uses of the environment without degradation, risk to health or safety
    • or other undesirable and unintended consequences
    • EPA added that environmental impact statements must be prepared before federal monies could be expended
  41. WHAT HAPPENED IN THE 2000's?
    the role of non-governmental agencies have increased tremendously in influencing governement environmental policy
  42. TVA 1933 (Tennesse Valley Authority)
    conservation of soil, water forest and wildlife in an entire drainage basin
  43. WHAT HAPPENED IN THE 1950'S?
    increased urbanization resulted in increase of fragmentation of natural ecosystems
  44. WHO WAS THE SENATOR ASSOCIATED WITH EARTH DAY 1970?
    Gaylord Nelson senator from Wisconsin
  45. 1980-TODAY?
    few positive federal environmental laws have been passed

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