ASTRONOMY Lecture Prac1

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ASTRONOMY Lecture Prac1
2010-09-20 00:44:11
Physics Astronomy Lecture Notes Practice Exam one

Astronomy Lecture Notes
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  1. What are the 3 "hallmarks of science?"
    • seeks explanations for observed phenomena that rely on natural causes
    • it progress through creation and testing: Models of nature that explain the observations as simple as possible
    • Models must make testable predictions about natural phenomena; It would have to force to revise or abandon a previous point or position.
  2. What is pseudoscience?
    Any subject that appears scientific, but doesn't follow the 3 "hallmarks" of science.
  3. What are some example of Pseudoscience? Why?
    • Alien abductions
    • Ghosts
    • Conspiracies

    Because these ideas cannot be repeated or tested !
  4. What are some attributes of pseudoscience claims?
    • use of vague, exaggerated // untestable claims
    • over-reliance on confirmation rather than refutation
    • lack of openess to testing (progress)
    • misleading language
  5. What is the building block of matter?
    The Atom.
  6. When atoms are combined, what do they fom
  7. What are the three particles present within a molecule?
    Electron, Proton, and Neutron.

  8. What are the measurements of an average atom?
    • nucleus = 10-15
    • entire atom = 10-10
  9. What are the forces that hold atoms together?
    • Strong force
    • Weak force
    • Electromagnetic force
    • Gravitational force
  10. What are the four states of matter?
    • Solid
    • Liquid
    • Gas
    • Plasma
  11. As far as astronomy and space works, heavier elements are created when _______ ______.
    As far as astronomy and space works, heavier elements are created when stars explode.
  12. What is the formula for Energy?
    E = mc2
  13. You can ______ or ______ atoms to create energy.
    You can combine or destroy atoms to create energy.

  14. This is an example of _____?
    Pair production

  15. This is an example of _____.
  16. What does the term "half-life" refer to?
    "Half-life" is the amount of time it takes for half of the mass to convert and decay.
  17. Fission is...
    breaking bigger nuclei into smaller - creating energy.
  18. Fussion is...
    combining smaller nuclei into a bigger nucleus - getting/creating energy.
  19. What powers the stars?
  20. 75% of the world is ____.
    24% of the world is ____.
    • 75% Hydrogen
    • 24% Helium
  21. What makes up the sun?
    73.5% Hydrogen, 24.8% Helium, 0.788% Oxygen, 0.326% Carbon, 0.118% Nitrogen
  22. The ability to do work is?
  23. The basic unit for energy is ____.
    The Joule
  24. The rate in which energy is used is _____.
  25. The sun is hydrostatic equilibrium. This means that the sun is ...?
    Nor shrinking or contracting.
  26. Who was the first to use a telescope?
    Galileo Galilei.

    He was not the inventor of the telescope; however, he was the first to use it to observe the sky. (to record and explain what he saw).
  27. What were some of Galileo's first observations?
    • the moon had mountains and valleys
    • milky way had stars
    • Jupiter had 4 moons; it introduced the idea that something besides the earth was the center of the universe.
    • sunspots
    • phases of Venus
  28. What was the name of the program Galileo published that was banned by the church?
    Dialogo dei Massimi Sistemi
  29. Why was "Dialogo dei Due Massimi Sistemi" banned by the church?
    Because Galileo basically, personally insulted the Pope with it.
  30. If you build a telescope twice as big, you gain _ _____ as much light.
    If you build a telescope twice as big, you gain 4 times as much light.
  31. What are three of the main functions of a telescope?
    • light gathering
    • resolution
    • magnification
  32. Light speed is a constant, and is represented by what equation?
    c = 3 x 108 m/s
  33. The longer the wave length the _______ the color.
    The longer the wave length the redder the color.
  34. The shorter the wave length, the _____ the color.
    The shorter the wave length, the bluer the color.
  35. Visible light has a wave length of:
    400 - 700 mm. [4 x 10-7 -- 7 x 10-7]
  36. Angles are measured in degrees.
    • 1 degree = 60 arcminutes
    • 1 arcminute = 60 arcseconds
    • 1 degree = 3600 arcseconds