A&PII Test Chapter 19
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A&PII Test Chapter 19
APII Chapter Part Blood MGCCC
A&PII Chapter 19 Part A Test
The cardiovascular system consists of?
What system is intimately related to the cardiovascular system?
Hematology is the study of
viscous (5 x more that water)
8% of total human body weight
slightly alkaline (7.35-7.45)
.9% sodium Chloride
What is the average adult blood volume?
5 liters (1 1/2 gallons)
A function of blood is transport. What does it transport?
Oxygen from the lungs (heme, part of hemoglobin, does this) to the cells
Carbon dioxide from the cells to the lungs (globin does this)
Nutrients from the digestive tract to the cells
Waste products from the cells to the lungs, kidneys, sweat glands, and liver
Hormones from the endocrine glands to the target cells
Enzymes to target cells
What are the functions of blood?
A function of blood is regulation. What does blood regulate?
Temperature (37C 98.6F)
pH through buffers
One of the functions of blood is protection. What does it protect against?
Blood loss through clotting mechanisms
Foreign bodies (ex. microbes)
What are the components of blood?
Formed elements - 45%
Plasma - 55%
What are the formed elements of blood? What percentage of blood do they make up?
What is blood minus it's formed elements?
What percentage of blood does plasma make up? What is plasma?
Fluid part of blood with clotting elements (minus formed elements)
What percentage of plasma is made up of clotting elements? What are they primarily?
7% of the plasma are clotting elements. They are primarily proteins.
Plasma minus the clotting elements is what?
Through what process are blood cells produced?
What are the 3 major types of blood cells (formed elements)?
Red blood cells (RBC)
White blood cells (WBC)
What is another name for a RBC?
What is another name for a WBC?
What is another name for platelets?
Where are RBCs made?
myeloid tissue (bone marrow)
Where are WBC's made?
myeloid tissue and lymphoid tissue (spleen & lymph nodes)
Where are platelets made?
myeloid tissue (bone marrow)
Through what process are RBCs formed?
What is the shape of RBCs? Why are they shaped this way?
allows for more surface area for gas exchange than almost any other shape
How big are RBCs?
8 micrometers in diameter
How much hemoglobin do RBCs contain?
30% of cell weight
Hemoglobin is a complex molecule. What does it contain?
a functional protein called globin
a non protein pigment called heme
What is globin? What is it composed of? What does it carry?
Globin is the functional protein part of hemoglobin.
It is composed of polypeptide chains (2 alpha and 2 beta chains).
It carries carbon dioxide.
What is heme? What does it contain? What does it carry?
Heme is the non-protein pigment part of hemoglobin.
Hemoglobin combines with oxygen to form
Hemoglobin combines with carbon dioxide to form
Hemoglobin combines with carbon monoxide to form
How long do RBCs live?
120 days (4 months)
How many RBCs are produced each second?
What is the stem cell called that gives rise to RBCs, WBCs, and thrombocytes?
What is a RBC in the final stage of immature development before becoming a mature RBC called?
Do retics have a nucleus? What do they have that mature RBCs don't?
No, retics do not have a nucleus.
Retics do still have organelles which mature RBCs do not have.
How many retics are considered abnormal?
more than 1.5%
Is anemia just caused by low iron?
No, anemia can result from decreased numbers of RBCs, decreased hemoglobin or cell size, or bizarre shapes.
What test measures the percentage of RBCs in whole blood? What do you spin the blood in?
blood is spun in a centrifuge
What is the normal amount of RBCs for a male?
For a female?
Do WBC's have a nucleus?
yes, WBC are nucleated
What are the 2 principal types of WBCs?
Where do granular leukocytes develop? What are some characteristics of granular leukocytes?
develop in the bone marrow
have granules or stippling in cytoplasm
about 10 micrometers in diameter
What are the 3 types of granular leukocytes?
cytoplasmic granules stain orange
eosinophilia indicates an acute allergic reaction or internal parasites
normally about 2-4%
granules stain dark purple
basophilia indicates certain types of cancer and leukemias
normally 0 -1 %
granules stain dark very light blue
known as polymorphs (many forms of nuclei)
neutrophilia indicates acute bacterial infection (ex septicemia)
What are some characteristics of agranular leukocytes?
develop in bone marrow and lymph tissue
do not have cytoplasmic granules
from 8-15 in diameter
no staining in cytoplasm
Name 2 types of agranular leukocytes.
large nucleus and little cytoplasm
lymphocytosis indicates acute viral infections
monocytosis indicates chronic infection
What are thrombocytes? What are the characteristics of a thrombocyte?
fragments of giant cells called megakaryocytes
round or oval purple disks
2 micrometers in diameter
function by breaking down to form fibrin clots
normal count between 250-400 thousand/cubic mm (very important to surgeons)
average life 5-9 days
Liquid portion of blood
55% of whole blood
7% proteins (when proteins are removed in the clotting process, what is left is serum)
What are the functions associated with WBCs?
Phagocytosis - eats
Chemotaxis - chemical alarm
defensins - like antibiotics
antihistamines - reduce swelling
antibodies - like keys for inactivating antigens
diapedesis - movement through capillary walls
What are wandering macrophages?
WBCs that move in the extravascular space disposing of dead or foreign matter
What is the normal count for WBCs?
1 WBC per 1000 RBCs
5-8 thousand/cubic millimeter
leukocytosis indicates infection
leukopenia is seen in wasting or near death conditions
What blood test is done to identify the percentage of each type of WBC in a blood sample?
Complete blood count (CBC) with differential.
How long do WBCs live?
Several hours to several days
What is hypoxia?
Oxygen deficiency at the cellular level