music section 3

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music section 3
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  1. What priority dominated the lives of 17th and 18th century American settlers?
    survival (UMRG:64,1,2)
  2. To what degree did the music of Native Americans influence the music of the settlers?
    very little (UMRG:64,1,1)
  3. four countries American settlers came from
    Great Britain, France, Spain, and Germany (UMRG:64,1,1)
  4. institution many American settlers sought freedom from
    the Church of England (UMRG:64,1,3)
  5. How often would American settlers attend social dances?
    once or twice a month (UMRG:64,1,2)
  6. In which century did American musicians first develop an interest in Native American music?
    19th (UMRG:64,1,1)
  7. Which musical tradition of American settlers is best understood today?
    religious singing (UMRG:64,1,3)
  8. American settlers’ source of religious music
    psalters (UMRG:64,1,3)
  9. From which country did American settlers originally obtain psalters?
    Great Britain (UMRG:64,1,3)
  10. psalters
    books containing the Psalms of David in verse form (UMRG:64,1,3)
  11. The Bay Psalm Book
    a words‐only psalter that was the first book printed in America (UMRG:64,1,3)
  12. Which country’s musical tradition formed the basis of religious music for American settlers?
    Great Britain (UMRG:64,1,3)
  13. Which edition of The Bay Psalm Book was the first to include notation?
    9th (UMRG:64,1,3)
  14. How many years did it take for the Bay Psalm Book to include notation?
    about 60 years (UMRG:64,1,3)
  15. Why did the Bay Psalm Book not include notation initially?
    lack of equipment (UMRG:64,1,3)
  16. two purposes of early singing schools
    give settlers a chance to socialize and improve the singing in Sunday worship services (UMRG:65,1,1)
  17. What social custom often took place in early singing schools?
    courting (UMRG:65,1,1)
  18. two American states in which German‐speaking Protestants settled
    Pennsylvania and North Carolina (UMRG:65,1,1)
  19. What element of music did the Mennonites forbid from worship services until the 1960s?
    instruments (UMRG:65,1,1)
  20. What style of singing did the Mennonites adopt?
    congregational part‐singing (UMRG:65,1,1)
  21. four types of instruments brought by Moravian settlers to America
    brass, woodwinds, stringed instruments, and drums (UMRG:65,1,1)
  22. In what type of early American settlement was folksong popular?
    commercial settlements (UMRG:65,1,2)
  23. one body of folksong that has survived from the colonial period
    French‐Canadian songs (UMRG:65,1,2)
  24. four subjects of French‐Canadian folksong
    canoeing, work, weather, and love (UMRG:65,1,2)
  25. three professional avenues colonial musicians could pursue
    teacher, printer, and traveling salesman/teacher (UMRG:65,1,3)
  26. Where did early American music printers sell their sheet music?
    a store attached to his printing shop (UMRG:65,1,3)
  27. two obstacles facings professional musicians in colonial America
    difficult travel and uncertain income (UMRG:65,1,3)
  28. two purposes of a traveling salesman/teacher
    selling sheet music and instruments and teaching the townspeople to play them (UMRG:65,1,3)
  29. What skill best qualified a settler to be a music teacher?
    proficiency in more than one instrument (UMRG:65,1,3)
  30. Why were cities unable to support resident musicians during the colonial period?
    They were too small. (UMRG:65,1,4)
  31. What THREE types of organizers would put on public concerts during the colonial period?
    social clubs, trade associations, and individuals (UMRG:65,1,4)
  32. How were public concerts funded during the colonial period?
    subscription (UMRG:65,1,4)
  33. colonial American songs taken from English stage productions
    airs (UMRG:65,1,4)
  34. What THREE plot elements did colonial “airs” commonly contain?
    love, conflict, or a character’s personality (UMRG:65,2,0)
  35. At what THREE points would instrumental pieces appear in English stage productions?
    overtures, interludes, and postludes (UMRG:65,2,0)
  36. “Love in a Village”
    an English stage production that became popular in the American colonies (UMRG:65,2,0)
  37. Thomas Arne
    playwright of “Love in a Village” (UMRG:65,2,0)
  38. type of songs written during the American Revolution
    patriotic songs (UMRG:65,2,1)
  39. cheap pamphlets on which the lyrics of patriotic songs were printed during the American revolution
    broadsides (UMRG:65,2,1)
  40. From where were the melodies of patriotic songs derived?
    well‐known tunes (UMRG:65,2,1)
  41. format of the lyrics of patriotic songs
    rhymed verse (UMRG:65,2,1)
  42. Where did the writers of patriotic songs distribute broadsides?
    wherever large groups of people could be found (UMRG:65,2,1)
  43. two sources of music in colonial‐era English stage productions
    a piano or an instrumental ensemble (UMRG:65,2,0)
  44. parlor song
    the dominant type of popular song in the United States before 1890 (UMRG:65,2,2)
  45. type of harmony used in parlor song choruses
    four‐part harmony (UMRG:65,2,2)
  46. the two elements of a parlor song
    a chorus alternating with strophic verses (UMRG:65,2,2)
  47. What musical texture best describes parlor song verses?
    monophony (UMRG:65,2,2)
  48. What musical texture best describes parlor song choruses?
    polyphony (UMRG:65,2,2)
  49. In what form were parlor songs sold?
    sheet music (UMRG:65,2,2)
  50. What setting was best suited for parlor songs?
    the home (UMRG:65,2,2)
  51. strophic verses
    an unharmonized melody with new lyrics for each repetition (UMRG:65,2,2)
  52. What TWO instruments were most commonly used to accompany parlor songs?
    piano and guitar (UMRG:65,2,2)
  53. What kind of people generally owned pianos in 19th century America?
    people of high social standing (UMRG:65,2,2)
  54. Which members of society were generally trained to play the piano in 19th century America?
    young women (UMRG:65,2,2)
  55. four original subjects of parlor songs
    romantic love, patriotism, protest and reform, and the Civil War (UMRG:65,2,3)
  56. five types of songs found in later parlor songs
    labor songs, cowboy songs, songs of Westward expansion, gospel songs, and nostalgic songs (UMRG:65,2,3)
  57. three musical properties characterizing parlor songs
    melodic elegance, catchiness, and versatility in different settings (UMRG:65,2,3)
  58. What SIX coastal cities were included in a standard tour for early American theatre companies?
    Boston, New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Charleston, and New Orleans (UMRG:65,2,4)
  59. What means of transportation did early American theatre companies use to tour inland cities?
    train (UMRG:65,2,4)
  60. What means of transportation did early American theatre companies use to tour coastal cities?
    boat (UMRG:65,2,4)
  61. two theatre pieces early American theatre companies mostly performed
    operetta and melodrama (UMRG:65,2,4)
  62. What kind of song did operetta and melodramas frequently feature in the 19th century?
    parlor song (UMRG:65,2,4)
  63. What kind of music was usually listened to in homes before the invention of the phonograph?
    parlor song (UMRG:65,2,2)
  64. instrument whose growth in demand outstripped population growth in the mid‐1800s
    piano (UMRG:66,1,1)
  65. center of music publishing after the Revolutionary War
    Philadelphia (UMRG:66,1,1)
  66. What THREE American cities entered the publishing industry in the early 19th century?
    Boston, New York, and Baltimore (UMRG:66,1,1)
  67. Lowell Mason
    “the father of music education” (UMRG:66,1,1)
  68. What company began selling pianos and violins by catalogue in the 1890s?
    Sears (UMRG:66,1,1)
  69. What enterprise provided a stable livelihood for Lowell Mason?
    selling instructional materials and instruments (UMRG:66,1,1)
  70. What TWO music industry products’ demand increased dramatically during the 19th century?
    pianos and sheet music (UMRG:66,1,1)
  71. aim that Lowell Mason’s educational efforts accomplished
    promoting music literacy in America (UMRG:66,1,1)
  72. field in which Lowell Mason established a reliable methodology in the 19th century
    music education (UMRG:66,1,1)
  73. “Home Sweet Home”
    a popular parlor song (UMRG:66,2,1)
  74. Henry Bishop
    the composer of “Home Sweet Home” (UMRG:66,2,1)
  75. “Clari”, or “The Maid of Milan”
    the operetta from which the music of “Home Sweet Home” was taken (UMRG:66,2,1)
  76. John Howard Payne
    author of the lyrics to “Home Sweeth Home” (UMRG:66,2,1)
  77. nationality of Henry Bishop
    British (UMRG:66,2,1)
  78. For roughly how long did the operetta “Clari” or “The Maid of Milan” play in New York?
    70 years (UMRG:66,2,1)
  79. How did music publishers capitalize on the popularity of “Home Sweet Home”?
    printing arrangements for different instruments, ensembles, or skill levels (UMRG:66,2,1)
  80. What type of song best is “The Star Spangled Banner” as?
    patriotic parlor song (UMRG:66,2,1)
  81. Francis Scott Key
    author of the lyrics to “The Star Spangled Banner” (UMRG:66,2,1)
  82. “To Anacreon in Heaven”
    song from which the melody of “The Star Spangled Banner” was taken (UMRG:66,2,1)
  83. “In Defense of Fort McHenry”
    Francis Scott Key poem used as the lyrics of “The Star Spangled Banner” (UMRG:66,2,1)
  84. From what country did the song “To Anacreon in Heaven” originate?
    Great Britain (UMRG:66,2,1)
  85. “The Battle Cry of Freedom”
    a popular Civil War song by George Frederic Root (UMRG:67,1,0)
  86. “Tenting on the Old Campground”
    a popular Civil War song by Walter Kittredge (UMRG:67,1,0)
  87. What action does the piano introduction to “The Battle Cry of Freedom” represent?
    marching (UMRG:67,1,0)
  88. In what way is “Tenting on the Old Campground” different from most other Civil War songs?
    admits to the horrors of war (UMRG:67,1,1)
  89. How did most Civil War songs view war?
    sentimentally (UMRG:66,2,2)
  90. What type of songs were usually written about the Civil War?
    parlor songs (UMRG:66,2,2)
  91. Reveille
    a military trumpet call (UMRG:67,1,1)
  92. last line of “Tenting on the Old Campground”
    “dying on the old campground” (UMRG:67,1,1)
  93. “Dixie”
    a popular Civil War song by Dan Emmett (UMRG:67,1,2)
  94. What intention did Dan Emmett originally have in writing “Dixie”?
    mocking southerners (UMRG:67,1,2)
  95. In what way are the songs “Dixie” and “Yankee Doodle” similar?
    Both were adopted by the people they were meant to ridicule. (UMRG:67,1,2)
  96. Stephen Foster
    the most famous 19th‐century American songwriter (UMRG:67,1,3)
  97. How was Stephen Foster unique among songwriters of his time?
    first to earn a living solely through the sale of compositions (UMRG:67,1,3)
  98. “I Dream of Jeanie with the Light Brown Hair”
    a famous composition by Stephen Foster (UMRG:67,1,3)
  99. “Come Where My Love Lies Dreaming”
    a famous composition by Stephen Foster (UMRG:67,1,3)
  100. “Gentle Annie”
    a famous composition by Stephen Foster (UMRG:67,1,3)
  101. With which category of songs did Stephen Foster have the most success?
    romantic parlor songs (UMRG:67,1,3)
  102. Which type of song best describes “I Dream of Jeanie with the Light Brown Hair” and “Gentle Annie”?
    romantic parlor song (UMRG:67,1,3)
  103. three most common themes in songs of westward expansion?
    loneliness, misery, and physical deprivation (UMRG:67,1,4)
  104. “Home on the Range”
    a famous song of westward expansion (UMRG:67,1,4)
  105. Why is “Home on the Range” atypical of a song of westward expansion?
    has a sentimental, optimistic outlook on frontier life (UMRG:67,1,4)
  106. “Old Chisholm Trail”
    a famous cowboy song (UMRG:67,1,4)
  107. labor song
    a song used to boost morale and solidarity among workers (UMRG:67,1,5)
  108. songsters (object)
    cheap booklets used to circulate the lyrics to labor songs (UMRG:67,1,5)
  109. From where did labor songs take their melodies?
    well‐known tunes (UMRG:67,1,5)
  110. Why did labor songs use well‐known tunes as their melodies?
    It was cheaper to circulate booklets of lyrics. (UMRG:67,1,5)
  111. What kind of harmony characterized labor and gospel songs?
    four‐part harmony (UMRG:67,1,5)
  112. mood of gospel songs of the post‐Civil‐War era
    sentimental and gentle (UMRG:67,1,5)
  113. “Jesus Loves Me”
    famous gospel song from the post‐Civil‐War era by William Bradbury (UMRG:67,1,5)
  114. “Blessed Assurance”
    famous gospel song from the post‐Civil‐War era by Fanny Crosby (UMRG:67,2,0)
  115. “In the Sweet Bye and Bye”
    famous gospel song from the post‐Civil‐War era by Fillmore Bennet (UMRG:67,2,0)
  116. Among what THREE groups were Southwestern folksongs common in the post‐Civil‐War era??
    Mexican Americans, Native Americans, and the European Americans who mingled with them (UMRG:67,2,1)
  117. Charles F. Lummis
    a Massachusetts journalist who collected Southwestern folksongs (UMRG:67,2,1)
  118. subject of nostalgic post‐Civil‐War era songs
    glorification of an idyllic antebellum past (UMRG:67,2,1)
  119. “Silver Threads Among the Gold”
    a famous nostalgic song from the post‐Civil‐War era by Eben Rexford and Hark P. Danks (UMRG:67,2,1)
  120. What TWO attitudes did minstrel shows convey?
    stereotypes of African‐American life whites’ views of their own lives (UMRG:67,2,2)
  121. How many New York City theatres were devoted to minstrel shows in the 1850s?
    10 (UMRG:67,2,2)
  122. What TWO methods did 19th century minstrel shows use to create their music?
    writing new songs and altering preexisting songs (UMRG:67,2,3)
  123. In what TWO ways did 19th century minstrel shows alter parlor songs?
    adding humorous lyrics or performing them with extreme melodrama (UMRG:67,2,3)
  124. How did minstrel shows usually alter patriotic songs?
    adding lyrics about current political issues (UMRG:67,2,3)
  125. bel canto opera
    a style of Italian opera that reached the United States in the 1850s (UMRG:68,1,0)
  126. three famous composers of bel canto opera
    Bellini, Donizetti, and Rossini (UMRG:68,1,0)
  127. three sources of music for 19th century minstrel dance routines
    syncopated dance tunes, formal dancing, and country hoedowns (UMRG:68,1,0)
  128. How did minstrel shows make use of bel canto opera?
    material for parody (UMRG:68,1,0)
  129. minstrelsy
    the blackface performance tradition of minstrel shows (UMRG:67,2,2)
  130. What kind of group did Dan Emmett lead?
    minstrel troupe (UMRG:68,1,1)
  131. What kind of songs accounted for 90% of Stephen Foster’s income?
    minstrel songs (UMRG:68,1,1)
  132. How did the popularity of minstrel shows affect the songwriting business?
    constant demand for new songs (UMRG:68,1,1)
  133. number of songs Stephen Foster wrote
    287 (UMRG:68,1,1)
  134. number of minstrel show songs Stephen Foster wrote
    23 (UMRG:68,1,1)
  135. “Old Dan Tucker”
    a famous minstrel song (UMRG:68,1,2)
  136. the Hutchinson Family Singers
    a socially conscious musical group from the 1850s (UMRG:68,1,2)
  137. What song did the Hutchinson Family Singers rewrite as an anti‐slavery anthem?
    “Old Dan Tucker” (UMRG:68,1,2)
  138. Tin Pan Alley
    New York City’s publishing district (UMRG:68,1,3)
  139. Why did the location of Tin Pan Alley often change?
    take advantage of cheap warehouse space (UMRG:68,1,3)
  140. What aspect of Tin Pan Alley gave it its name?
    the tinny sound of the pianos played by song‐pluggers (UMRG:68,1,3)
  141. song‐plugger
    a musician who played outside sheet music stores in Tin Pan Alley (UMRG:68,1,3)
  142. What famous Tin Pan Alley songwriter began as a song‐plugger?
    George Gershwin (UMRG:68,1,3)
  143. aim of song‐pluggers
    enticing passersby to buy sheet music (UMRG:68,1,3)
  144. How did song‐pluggers attract business?
    loudly playing popular new songs outside sheet music stores (UMRG:68,1,3)
  145. Why was Tin Pan Alley noisy?
    song‐pluggers attempting to outdo one another (UMRG:68,1,3)
  146. center of the music publishing industry
    New York City (UMRG:68,1,4)
  147. What THREE advantages made New York City ideal for the publishing industry in the early 1900s?
    high concentration of consumers, cheap supplies, and presence of other entertainment‐industry businesses (UMRG:68,1,4)
  148. three supplies essential to the music publishing industry in the early 1900s
    cheap sturdy paper, ink, and printing presses equipped for music notation (UMRG:68,1,4)
  149. four types of people employed by the New York City music publishing industry
    arrangers, couriers, copyists, and advertisers (UMRG:68,1,4)
  150. four sectors of the New York City entertainment industry
    live performances, theatre management, booking agencies, and publishing (UMRG:68,1,4)
  151. most popular means of transmitting songs across the United States during the late 19th century
    sheet music (UMRG:68,2,1)
  152. second most popular means of transmitting songs across the United States during the late 19th century
    live performances (UMRG:68,2,1)
  153. preferred means of introducing new songs to the American public in the late 19th century
    through Broadway shows (UMRG:68,2,1)
  154. How would traveling theatre companies obtain new songs in the early 1900s?
    taking songs from New York and incorporating them (UMRG:68,2,1)
  155. Which meter did popular songs mostly use at the turn of the 20th century?
    triple (UMRG:68,2,2)
  156. waltz
    a style of song in triple meter (UMRG:68,2,2)
  157. “The Band Played On”
    a famous waltz from the turn of the 20th century (UMRG:68,2,2)
  158. “The Sidewalks of New York”
    a famous waltz from the turn of the 20th century (UMRG:68,2,2)
  159. What TWO sections comprised a standard waltz at the turn of the century?
    verse and chorus (UMRG:68,2,2)
  160. What harmonic characteristic distinguished the verse of a song from its chorus at the turn of the 20th century?
    harmonic instability (UMRG:68,2,2)
  161. What TWO elements created harmonic instability in early 1900s popular songs?
    irregular phrase lengths and modulations (UMRG:68,2,2)
  162. two stylistic functions of the verse in an early 1900spopular song
    tell a story or create tension (UMRG:68,2,2)
  163. two functions of the chorus in an early 1900s popular song
    explain the story or release tension (UMRG:68,2,2)
  164. In what TWO ways did the relationship between the verse and chorus of a song change in the early 1900s?
    the verse was shortened and the chorus became the more important part of the song (UMRG:68,2,2)
  165. What THREE elements allowed the chorus of a song to stand alone in the early 1900s?
    lyrics, melody, and a stable key (UMRG:68,2,2)
  166. How were the lyrics of songs arranged at the turn of the 20th century?
    multiple stanzas (UMRG:68,2,2)
  167. What musical element formed the basis of the verse in an early 1900s song?
    melody (UMRG:68,2,2)
  168. How did the development of ragtime affect the meter of popular songs?
    Duple meter became more popular than triple. (UMRG:69,1,1)
  169. How many Broadway musicals debuted yearly before the stock market crash of 1929?
    about 30 (UMRG:69,1,2)
  170. How many Broadway musicals debuted yearly after the stock market crash of 1929?
    about 12 (UMRG:69,1,2)
  171. What event crippled the music industry in the late 1920s?
    the stock market crash (UMRG:69,1,2)
  172. Why was the music publishing industry brought to a halt after the stock market crash of 1929?
    People could no longer afford sheet music. (UMRG:69,1,2)
  173. What TWO holdings kept Irving Berlin in business after the stock market crash of 1929?
    a publishing company and an important Broadway theater (UMRG:69,2,0)
  174. “The Jazz Singer”
    a 1927 film starring Al Jolson (UMRG:69,2,1)
  175. Al Jolson
    a minstrelsy singer who starred in the film “The Jazz Singer” (UMRG:69,2,1)
  176. By what percentage did the sales of recordings drop after the 1929 stock market crash?
    95% (UMRG:69,2,0)
  177. What TWO media forms became the primary means of disseminating music after the 1929 stock market crash?
    radio and film (UMRG:69,2,1)
  178. Why was radio more popular than recordings?
    After purchasing a radio, music was free and accessible almost anywhere. (UMRG:69,2,1)
  179. Why was film preferable to live theater for producers after the 1929 stock market crash?
    repeat performances were easy and profitable (UMRG:69,2,1)
  180. Why was distributing a film cheaper than putting on live theatre after the 1929 stock market crash?
    do not need to pay the expenses of an entire troupe (UMRG:69,2,1)
  181. ethnicity of most band members in “hot” jazz bands
    African‐American (UMRG:50,2,4)
  182. ethnicity of most audiences of “hot” jazz bands
    African‐American (UMRG:50,2,4)
  183. What genre made Hollywood the center of the music industry in the 1930s?
    the film musical (UMRG:69,2,2)
  184. What city produced most film musicals in the 1930s?
    Hollywood (UMRG:69,2,2)
  185. Who held ownership of a song produced during the 1930s?
    the composer and lyricist (UMRG:69,2,2)
  186. copyright law
    field determining the ownership of ideas, such as songs (UMRG:69,2,2)
  187. intellectual property
    ideas owned under copyright law (UMRG:69,2,2)
  188. “You’re the Top”
    a famous song by Cole Porter (UMRG:71,1,2)
  189. What THREE purposes required that one buy the rights to a song during the 1930s?
    selling sheet music, admission tickets, or recordings (UMRG:69,2,2)
  190. How was popular song different from more formal compositions in the 1930s?
    Popular songs were adaptable to different styles and settings. (UMRG:69,2,2)
  191. composer’s music
    music that instructs a performer exactly how to execute the composer’s ideas (UMRG:69,2,3)
  192. performer’s music
    music where the performer is free to creatively alter the composition (UMRG:69,2,3)
  193. By what means does composer’s music instruct the performer?
    notation (UMRG:69,2,3)
  194. What category of music best characterizes the relationship between the performer and composer of popular song?
    performer’s music (UMRG:69,2,4)
  195. What TWO aspects of popular song as performer’s music were as important as the notes?
    characteristics of voice and nuances of performance (UMRG:69,2,4)
  196. What FOUR structural elements were left at the discretion of the performer in popular song?
    accompaniment, interludes, repeated or omitted sections, and length (UMRG:70,1,0)
  197. two reasons for composers of popular song to write performer’s music
    wide dissemination and adaptability (UMRG:70,1,0)
  198. Jerome Kern
    a famous songwriter of the 1930s (UMRG:70,1,1)
  199. Where did Jerome Kern gain his knowledge of music?
    college (UMRG:70,1,1)
  200. Of what ethnicity was Jerome Kern’s family?
    Jewish (UMRG:70,1,1)
  201. Oscar Hammerstein II
    a famous lyricist and librettist of the 1930s (UMRG:70,2,0)
  202. two famous songs from the musical “Show Boat”
    “Can’t Help Lovin’ Dat Man” and “Ol’ Man River” (UMRG:70,2,0)
  203. “Show Boat”
    a groundbreaking musical that debuted in 1927 (UMRG:70,2,0)
  204. Who wrote the libretto for “Show Boat”?
    Oscar Hammerstein II (UMRG:70,2,0)
  205. Who wrote the music for “Show Boat”?
    Jerome Kern (UMRG:70,2,0)
  206. How did “Show Boat” impact Broadway?
    brought Broadway into the era of modern musicals (UMRG:70,2,0)
  207. In what TWO ways was “Show Boat” a modern musical?
    character development and a substantial plot (UMRG:70,2,0)
  208. What kind of pianist was Jerome Kern early in his career?
    rehearsal pianist (UMRG:70,2,0)
  209. T. B. Harms
    a publisher who employed Jerome Kern early in his career (UMRG:70,2,0)
  210. “Roberta”
    a Jerome Kern musical that was adapted for film (UMRG:70,2,0)
  211. “Smoke Gets In Your Eyes”
    a famous song from the musical “Roberta” (UMRG:70,2,0)
  212. “The Way You Look Tonight”
    a famous Jerome Kern song from “Swing Time” (UMRG:70,2,0)
  213. For which song did Jerome Kern win his first Oscar?
    “The Way You Look Tonight” (UMRG:70,2,0)
  214. “Swing Time”
    a musical film featuring the song “The Way You Look Tonight” (UMRG:70,2,0)
  215. two actors who starred in the musical film “Swing Time”
    Fred Astaire and Ginger Rogers (UMRG:70,2,0)
  216. Richard Rodgers
    a famous songwriter of the 1930s (UMRG:71,1,1)
  217. Cole Porter
    a famous songwriter of the 1930s (UMRG:71,1,2)
  218. George Gershwin’s original name
    Jacob Gershovitz (UMRG:71,1,3)
  219. Irving Berlin’s original name
    Israel Baline (UMRG:)
  220. Rodgers and Hart
    composing team that held a near‐monopoly on Broadway compositions after 1935 (UMRG:71,1,1)
  221. Which songwriter was the only real competition Rodgers and Hart faced after 1935?
    Cole Porter (UMRG:71,1,1)
  222. How many musicals did Richard Rodgers write with Lorenz Hart?
    28 (UMRG:71,1,1)
  223. Where did Richard Rodgers grow up?
    Queens, New York (UMRG:71,1,1)
  224. Lorenz Hart
    a famous librettist of the 1930s (UMRG:71,1,1)
  225. How many published songs did Richard Rodgers compose?
    about 900 (UMRG:71,1,1)
  226. How many musicals did Richard Rodgers compose?
    43 (UMRG:71,1,1)
  227. Richard Rodgers’ university
    Columbia (UMRG:71,1,1)
  228. With what librettist other than Lorenz Hart did Richard Rodgers famously collaborate?
    Oscar Hammerstein II (UMRG:71,1,1)
  229. What event led Richard Rodgers to team up with Oscar Hammerstein II?
    Lorenz Hart’s death (UMRG:71,1,1)
  230. What magazine featured Rodgers and Hart on their cover in 1938?
    Time (UMRG:71,1,1)
  231. state of birth of Cole Porter
    Indiana (UMRG:71,1,2)
  232. Who supported Cole Porter’s musical education?
    his parents and grandfather (UMRG:71,1,2)
  233. At which TWO universities did Cole Porter study?
    Harvard and Yale (UMRG:71,1,2)
  234. “Night and Day”
    a 1932 hit song by Cole Porter (UMRG:71,1,2)
  235. “Just One of Those Things”
    a 1935 hit song by Cole Porter (UMRG:71,1,2)
  236. “Begin the Beguine”
    a 1935 hit song by Cole Porter (UMRG:71,1,2)
  237. “I Get a Kick Out of You”
    a 1934 hit song by Cole Porter (UMRG:71,1,2)
  238. “Anything Goes”
    a 1934 hit song by Cole Porter (UMRG:71,1,2)
  239. What THREE elements characterize Cole Porter’s songs?
    witty lyrics, sophistication, and an occasionally cynical tone (UMRG:71,1,2)
  240. Who did George Gershwin collaborate with on his musicals?
    Ira Gershwin (UMRG:71,1,3)
  241. How many musicals did George and Ira Gershwin write?
    9 (UMRG:71,1,3)
  242. In what musical style was George Gershwin trained?
    classical piano (UMRG:71,1,3)
  243. Where did George Gershwin work before being hired by the Harms Music Company?
    accompanist at a vaudeville show (UMRG:71,1,3)
  244. Harms Music Company
    a publishing company that hired Jerome Kern and George Gershwin (UMRG:71,1,3)
  245. “Swanee”
    George Gershwin’s first hit song (UMRG:71,1,3)
  246. What earlier song does Gershwin’s “Swanee” reference?
    “Old Folks at Home” by Stephen Foster (UMRG:71,1,4)
  247. Dubose and Dorothy Hayward
    the authors of the play that formed the basis of “Porgy and Bess” (UMRG:71,1,4)
  248. Where is the musical “Porgy and Bess” set?
    an African‐American community on the Carolina coast (UMRG:71,1,4)
  249. “Summertime”
    a famous song from Gershwin’s “Porgy and Bess” (UMRG:71,1,4)
  250. “Embraceable You”
    a hit 1930 song by George Gershwin (UMRG:71,2,1)
  251. “Shall We Dance?”
    a hit 1937 song by George Gershwin (UMRG:71,2,1)
  252. “Nice Work if You Can Get It”
    a hit 1937 song by George Gershwin (UMRG:71,2,1)
  253. “A Foggy Day”
    a hit 1937 song by George Gershwin (UMRG:71,2,1)
  254. Let’s Call the Whole Thing Off”
    a hit 1937 song by George Gershwin (UMRG:71,2,1)
  255. At what age did Irving Berlin pass away?
    101 (UMRG:71,2,2)
  256. Where did Irving Berlin grow up?
    the Lower East Side of Manhattan (UMRG:71,2,2)
  257. Why was Irving Berlin able to remain popular for a long period of time?
    willingness to adapt his style (UMRG:71,2,2)
  258. How many years old was Irving Berlin when his father died?
    10 (UMRG:71,2,2)
  259. Through what TWO ways did Irving Berlin earn money after his father died?
    singing beggar and singing waiter (UMRG:71,2,2)
  260. In what field did Irving Berlin obtain a job at age twenty?
    publishing (UMRG:71,2,2)
  261. What task was Irving Berlin assigned at his publishing job?
    writing lyrics (UMRG:71,2,2)
  262. “Annie Get Your Gun”
    a famous musical by Irving Berlin (UMRG:71,2,2)
  263. What kind of business did Irving Berlin start in 1918?
    a publishing firm (UMRG:72,1,1)
  264. In what key only was Irving Berlin able to play the piano?
    F# (UMRG:72,1,1)
  265. How did Irving Berlin get around his inability to play in different keys on the piano?
    a piano rigged to transpose his playing (UMRG:72,1,1)
  266. How did Irving Berlin learn to play the piano?
    self‐taught (UMRG:72,1,1)
  267. How did Irving Berlin notate his songs?
    employed a copyist (UMRG:72,1,1)
  268. To what business did Irving Berlin turn for work after the 1929 stock market crash?
    film (UMRG:72,1,1)
  269. For how many films did Irving Berlin write the score?
    10 (UMRG:72,1,1)
  270. “Putting On the Ritz”
    a famous film scored by Irving Berlin (UMRG:72,1,1)
  271. “Top Hat”
    a famous film scored by Irving Berlin (UMRG:72,1,1)
  272. Which TWO actors starred in “Top Hat”?
    Fred Astaire and Ginger Rogers (UMRG:72,1,1)
  273. How many Broadway shows did Irving Berlin write during the 1930s?
    2 (UMRG:72,1,1)
  274. Ella Fitzgerald
    a famous swing‐era vocalist (UMRG:72,1,2)
  275. With what kind of band did Ella Fitzgerald begin her career?
    a dance band (UMRG:72,1,2)
  276. What part of a song would a vocalist sing in a dance band?
    one chorus (UMRG:72,1,2)
  277. Why were vocalists in dance bands able to develop solo careers?
    were free to record outside the band (UMRG:72,1,2)
  278. What THREE physical characteristics contribute to a vocalist’s style?
    persona, body language, and facial expression (UMRG:72,1,3)
  279. How did Ella Fitzgerald’s repertoire differ from that of Billie Holiday?
    more mainstream (UMRG:72,1,4)
  280. What TWO fears led vocalists to only sing standard songs in the 1930s?
    the risk of alienating audiences and losing income (UMRG:72,1,4)
  281. “Strange Fruit”
    a famous song performed by Billie Holiday (UMRG:72,1,4)
  282. Abel Meeropol
    the author of the poem on which the song “Strange Fruit” is based (UMRG:72,1,4)
  283. Why was “Strange Fruit” a controversial song?
    was about lynching (UMRG:72,1,4)
  284. What TWO types of song did Ella Fitzgerald primarily sing?
    Broadway standards and lyrical ballads (UMRG:72,1,4)
  285. Why were jazz and non‐jazz vocalist performances very similar?
    any popular song could receive jazz treatment (UMRG:72,1,5)
  286. “Bei Mir Bist Du Schön”
    a famous song performed by the Andrews Sisters and by Ella Fitzgerald (UMRG:72,2,1)
  287. original title of “Bei Mir Bist Du Schön”
    “Bay Mir Bistu Sheyn” (UMRG:72,2,1)
  288. In what language was “Bei Mir Bist Du Schön” originally written?
    Yiddish (UMRG:72,2,1)
  289. For what setting was “Bei Mir Bist Du Schön” intended?
    the Yiddish theatre circuit (UMRG:72,2,1)
  290. Sholom Secunda
    the composer of “Bei Mir Bist Du Schön” (UMRG:72,2,1)
  291. Jacob Jacobs
    the lyricist of “Bei Mir Bist Du Schön” (UMRG:72,2,1)
  292. Why did Sholom Secunda sell the rights to “Bei Mir Bist Du Schön”?
    Hollywood and radio had not shown any interest. (UMRG:72,2,1)
  293. amount of money Sholom Secunda sold the right to “Bei Mir Bist Du Schön” for
    30 dollars (UMRG:73,1,0)
  294. To whom did Sholom Secunda sell the rights to “Bei Mir Bist Du Schön”?
    a publisher (UMRG:73,1,0)
  295. meaning of “Bei Mir Bist Du Schön”
    “To Me You Are Beautiful” (UMRG:73,1,0)
  296. What part of the original lyrics was preserved in the English version of “Bei Mir Bist Du Schön”?
    the title (UMRG:73,1,0)
  297. Decca Records
    company that released the first recording of “Bei Mir Bist Du Schön” (UMRG:73,1,1)
  298. the Andrews Sisters
    a famous vocal trio of the 1930s and 1940s (UMRG:73,1,1)
  299. home city of the Andrews Sisters
    Minneapolis (UMRG:73,1,1)
  300. With what THREE major musical acts did the Andrews Sisters famously collaborate?
    Glenn Miller Orchestra, Bing Crosby, and Guy Lombardo (UMRG:73,2,0)
  301. “Beer Barrel Polka” and “Boogie Woogie Bugle Boy”
    two famous songs by the Andrews Sisters (UMRG:73,2,0)
  302. Chick Webb Orchestra
    a group with whom Ella Fitzgerald performed early in her career (UMRG:73,3,1)
  303. What musical device is used to make “Bei Mir Bist Du Schön” seem familiar?
    a simple, repetitive harmony that alternates between tonic and dominant (UMRG:73,3,1)
  304. Why is the verse form of “Bei Mir Bist Du Schön” unusual?
    The sections of the verses are almost identical. (UMRG:73,3,2)
  305. What FOUR chords does “Bei Mir Bist Du Schön” use?
    I, ii, iv, and V (UMRG:73,3,2)
  306. On what chord do the first two parts of the verse end in “Bei Mir Bist Du Schön”?
    V (UMRG:73,3,2)
  307. On what scale degree does the second part of the verse end in “Bei Mir Bist Du Schön”?
    ^5 (UMRG:73,3,2)
  308. What “exotic” style appears in the melodic motive of “Bei Mir Bist Du Schön”?
    Middle Eastern (UMRG:73,3,3)
  309. What melodic aspect of “Bei Mir Bist Du Schön” makes it interesting?
    chromatic inflections (UMRG:73,3,3)
  310. How many times does the first motive appear in the introduction of “Bei Mir Bist Du Schön?
    4 (UMRG:73,3,3)
  311. scat
    improvised, wordless vocal lines (UMRG:73,3,6)
  312. What THREE elements demonstrate Ella Fitzgerald’s virtuosity in “Bei Mir Bist Du Schön”?
    the details of her performance, her interaction, vocal control (UMRG:73,3,6)
  313. With what rhythmic device does the verse of “Bei Mir Bist Du Schön” begin?
    anacrusis or pickup (UMRG:73,3,4)
  314. What FOUR characteristics make “Bei Mir Bist Du Schön” ideal performer’s music?
    simple chords, a clear phrase structure, rhythmic repetition, and melodic repetition (UMRG:73,3,5)
  315. What structure characterizes “Bei Mir Bist Du Schön”?
    AABA (UMRG:73,3,5)
  316. “42nd Street”
    a famous 1933 Warner Brothers film (UMRG:75,2,1)
  317. subject of the film “42nd Street”
    contemporary life on Broadway (UMRG:75,2,1)
  318. For what TWO forms of media did the film “42nd Street” constitute an advancement?
    film and recording (UMRG:75,2,1)
  319. What feature of “42nd Street” became a standard part of musical films in the 1930s?
    mass dance numbers (UMRG:75,2,1)
  320. two goals of 1930s musical films
    spectacle and escapism (UMRG:75,2,2)
  321. “The Gay Divorce”
    a Cole Porter musical that was adapted to film (UMRG:75,2,2)
  322. How many of Cole Porter’s songs did the film adaptation of “The Gay Divorce” preserve?
    1 (UMRG:75,2,2)
  323. “High Wide and Handsome”
    a famous musical film by Jerome Kern (UMRG:75,2,2)
  324. the first film to feature Fred Astaire and Ginger Rogers
    “Flying Down to Rio” (UMRG:76,1,1)
  325. two requirements Fred Astaire set for his films
    The dance had to move the plot along and the camera could not do close‐ups or move around. (UMRG:76,1,2)
  326. two characteristic elements of Busby Berkeley’s choreography
    synchronization and spectacle (UMRG:76,2,0)
  327. Busby Berkeley
    a famous dance musical producer (UMRG:76,1,2)
  328. opulent escapism
    a musical style that attempted to distract from the bleak outlook of the Great Depression (UMRG:76,2,1)
  329. popular songs of the 1930s that have become common material for musicians
    standards (UMRG:76,2,1)
  330. state of birth of Fred Astaire
    Nebraska (UMRG:76,3,1)
  331. Fred Astaire’s original name
    Frederick Austerlitz (UMRG:76,3,1)
  332. In what kind of show did Fred Astaire get his start?
    vaudeville (UMRG:76,3,1)
  333. “Cheek to Cheek”
    a famous song compose by Irving Berlin and performed by Fred Astaire (UMRG:76,3,1)
  334. How does the harmonic progression of “Cheek to Cheek” differ from most other Broadway songs?
    It strays further from the tonic. (UMRG:76,3,2)
  335. rhyme scheme of the A section of “Cheek to Cheek” lyrics
    abbb (UMRG:76,3,2)
  336. How is the key of the C section related to the key of the rest of the song in “Cheek to Cheek”?
    parallel minor (UMRG:77,1,1)
  337. rhyming in the C section of “Cheek to Cheek” lyrics
    internal rhyme (UMRG:77,1,1)
  338. “Brother, Can You Spare a Dime”
    a famous song of the 1930s (UMRG:78,1,1)
  339. What common Depression‐era style is “Brother, Can You Spare a Dime” a departure from?
    opulent escapism (UMRG:78,1,1)
  340. What chord progression is used in the introduction to “Brother, Can You Spare a Dime”?
    i‐IV‐V (UMRG:78,1,3)
  341. Jay Gorney
    composer of “Brother, Can You Spare a Dime” (UMRG:78,1,1)
  342. What type of harmony is used in “Brother, Can You Spare a Dime”?
    chromatic harmony (UMRG:80,1,1)
  343. Hillbilly music or country music
    rural music played by amateur musicians in depression‐era United States (UMRG:80,1,2)
  344. four instruments most commonly used in Hillbilly music
    banjo, fiddle, harmonica, and mandolin (UMRG:80,1,2)
  345. On what TWO folk traditions was Hillbilly music based?
    English and Irish folk music (UMRG:80,1,2)
  346. In what FOUR industries were most Hillbilly musicians employed?
    mining, mills and factories, agriculture, or railroads (UMRG:80,1,2)
  347. What media form made folk music commercially viable?
    radio (UMRG:80,1,3)
  348. John and Alan Lomax
    famous collectors and promoters of folk music in radio (UMRG:80,1,3)
  349. bluegrass music
    a style of folk music developed in the 1930s (UMRG:80,1,3)
  350. Bill Monroe
    a fiddle player who pioneered bluegrass music (UMRG:80,2,1)
  351. Grand Ole Opry
    a nationally broadcast folk music radio show begun in the 1920s (UMRG:80,2,1)
  352. Blue Grass Boys
    a folk band formed in 1938 by Bill Monroe (UMRG:80,2,1)
  353. What kinds of communities had strong regional musical traditions?
    ethnic communities founded by immigrants (UMRG:80,2,2)
  354. Cecil Sharp
    an early pre‐Depression folk music collector (UMRG:81,1,0)
  355. nationality of Cecil Sharp’s employer
    British (UMRG:81,1,0)
  356. What TWO methods did the Archive of American Folk Song use to preserve folk music?
    recording and publishing collections of folk songs (UMRG:81,1,1)
  357. What attitude did early folk song collectors have toward folk music?
    paternalistic, condescending (UMRG:81,1,0)
  358. What United States government department set out to preserve folk music in 1914?
    Department of Education (UMRG:81,1,1)
  359. Asch Records
    company that recorded Lead Belly and Woody Guthrie (UMRG:81,2,1)
  360. Ruth Crawford and Charles Seeger
    two famous late 1930s folk music collectors (UMRG:81,2,1)
  361. three Aaron Copland ballets incorporating American folk music
    “Billy the Kid,” “Appalachian Spring,” and “Rodeo” (UMRG:81,2,2)
  362. William Schuman
    a 20th century composer who incorporated American folk songs into his music (UMRG:81,2,2)
  363. Virgil Thomson
    a 20th century composer who incorporated American folk songs into his music (UMRG:81,2,2)
  364. How did the subject matter of 1930s folk songs differ from that of Broadway and Hollywood songs?
    took up social causes and politics (UMRG:81,2,3)
  365. purpose of 1930s folk songs about poverty and hardship
    to inspire crowds at rallies and meetings (UMRG:81,2,3)
  366. Woody Guthrie
    a famous folk musician of the 1930s and 1940s (UMRG:82,1,1)
  367. state of birth of Woody Guthrie
    Oklahoma (UMRG:82,1,1)
  368. What lifestyle did Woody Guthrie embrace shortly before the stock market crash?
    wandering hobo (UMRG:82,1,1)
  369. In what TWO states did Woody Guthrie wander during the Dust Bowl years of the Great Depression?
    Oklahoma and Texas (UMRG:82,1,1)
  370. Why did Woody Guthrie join the migration from Oklahoma to California?
    to find work (UMRG:82,1,1)
  371. Where did depression‐era migrants from Oklahoma live when they arrived in California?
    refugee camps (UMRG:82,1,1)
  372. Okies
    the name used by Californian workers to refer to Oklahoma migrants (UMRG:82,1,1)
  373. What job did Woody Guthrie obtain in 1937?
    radio host (UMRG:82,1,2)
  374. To which city did Woody Guthrie hitchhike in 1940?
    New York City (UMRG:82,1,2)
  375. “This Land is Your Land”
    a famous Woody Guthrie song (UMRG:82,1,2)
  376. “Union Maid”
    a famous Woody Guthrie song (UMRG:82,1,2)
  377. “So Long, It’s Been Good to Know You”
    a famous Woody Guthrie song (UMRG:82,1,2)
  378. “Roll On Columbia”
    a famous Woody Guthrie song (UMRG:82,1,2)
  379. “Pastures of Plenty”
    a famous Woody Guthrie song (UMRG:82,1,2)
  380. Grapes of Wrath concert
    a landmark folk music concert held in March 1940 (UMRG:82,1,3)
  381. In what two ways was the Grapes of Wrath concert unusual?
    was a formal folk concert held in a New York theatre for a political cause (UMRG:82,1,3)
  382. What group received the proceeds of the Grapes of Wrath concert?
    impoverished migrant farm workers (UMRG:82,1,3)
  383. Which author wrote the book from which the Grapes of Wrath concert borrowed its name?
    John Steinbeck (UMRG:82,1,3)
  384. Which influential figure first invited Woody Guthrie to record following the Grapes of Wrath concert?
    Alan Lomax (UMRG:82,2,0)
  385. What event inspired Guthrie’s “So Long, It’s Been Good to Know You”?
    a dust storm (UMRG:82,3,1)
  386. What THREE performance elements create interest in a folk song?
    the delivery style, the attitude of the singer, and subtle alterations to repeated ideas (UMRG:82,3,1)
  387. accompaniment pattern of “So Long, It’s Been Good to Know You”
    bass notes on the downbeats with chords on beats 2 and 3 (UMRG:83,1,1)
  388. What structure best describes the chorus of “So Long, It’s Been Good to Know You”?
    A A’ B C D (UMRG:83,1,3)
  389. number of verses in “So Long, It’s Been Good to Know You”
    6 (UMRG:83,1,7)
  390. Pete Seeger
    a famous folk songwriter inspired by Woody Guthrie (UMRG:84,3,1)
  391. In how many stanzas does Woody Guthrie’s “Tom Joad” summarize The Grapes of Wrath?
    17 (UMRG:84,2,1)
  392. How did the Soviet Union strengthen the communist organizations of individual countries?
    emphasizing local folk music (UMRG:85,1,1)
  393. How did Hollywood discourage songwriters from supporting communism?
    blacklisting (UMRG:85,2,0)
  394. McCarthy Era
    a period of strong anti‐communist efforts by the American government in the 1950s (UMRG:85,2,1)

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