music section 4

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music section 4
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  1. two characteristics of early 1900s classical music
    dissonant and complex (UMRG:87,1,1)
  2. musical modernism
    an early 20th century classical style that abandoned tonality (UMRG:87,1,2)
  3. By what definition did musical modernists measure progress?
    an ever‐advancing musical language (UMRG:87,1,2)
  4. What attitude distinguishes a modernist work from a modern one?
    self‐conscious (UMRG:87,1,2)
  5. How did the goal of American classical music change in the 1930s?
    aimed to create music that sounded American (UMRG:87,1,1)
  6. the Armory show
    a famous art show that brought modernism to America (UMRG:87,1,3)
  7. What artistic style did modernist composers reject?
    emotional expressivity (UMRG:87,1,3)
  8. artistic autonomy
    the idea that each work is a self‐contained entity (UMRG:88,1,1)
  9. modernist artistic autonomy
    idea that art is a self‐contained entity that does not need a function (UMRG:88,1,1)
  10. experimentalist composers
    1920s modernist composers who experimented with new ways to create music (UMRG:88,1,1)
  11. To what THREE elements did experimentalist turn to create new music?
    rhythm, timbre, and mechanical invention (UMRG:88,1,1)
  12. Whose approval did modernist composers seek?
    discerning specialists (UMRG:88,1,1)
  13. main goal of modernist composers
    moving the field of music composition forward (UMRG:88,1,1)
  14. Ruth Crawford Seeger
    a famous modernist composer (UMRG:88,3,1)
  15. Aaron Copland
    a famous composer who began as a modernist but moved into folk‐based compositions (UMRG:88,2,1)
  16. What TWO motivations does Alan Copland give for composing outside the modernist school?
    the public was not used to hearing modernist work; the excitement of the avant‐garde (UMRG:88,2,1)
  17. To what composing school did Ruth Crawford Seeger’s teachers belong?
    modernist (UMRG:88,3,1)
  18. In what THREE musical elements does Ruth Crawford Seeger use serial techniques?
    pitch, rhythm, and form (UMRG:88,3,1)
  19. In what musical activity other than composing did Ruth Crawford Seeger engage?
    collecting folk music (UMRG:88,3,1)
  20. dissonant counterpoint
    a method of structuring pitch without relying on tonal relationships (UMRG:88,3,2)
  21. serial composers’ definition of melody
    a series of successive pitches perceived by the human ear as a coherent whole (UMRG:88,3,3)
  22. For which FOUR instruments did Ruth Crawford Seeger write “String Quartet”?
    2 violins, viola, and cello (UMRG:88,3,4)
  23. What interval unifies the four melodic ideas in Ruth Crawford Seeger’s “String Quartet”?
    major seventh (UMRG:88,3,4)
  24. What instruction did Ruth Crawford Seeger put on the front page of the “String Quartet” score?
    “The melody line must be heard continuously throughout the music.” (UMRG:88,3,4)
  25. interval indicating a cadence in Ruth Crawford Seeger’s “String Quartet”
    major seventh (UMRG:88,3,4)
  26. What aspect of her compositions did Ruth Crawford Seeger hope listeners would grasp?
    the inner logic (UMRG:88,3,2)
  27. With what linguistic device does Ruth Crawford Seeger compare repeating a given interval?
    rhyme (UMRG:88,3,5)
  28. In what TWO unusual ways does Ruth Crawford Seeger present the two melodies of “String Quartet”?
    backwards and upside down (UMRG:88,3,5)
  29. How does Ruth Crawford Seeger combine the two melodies of “String Quartet”?
    the pitches of one with the rhythm of the other (UMRG:88,3,5)
  30. harmonic system of Aaron Copland’s “Piano Variations”
    atonal (UMRG:89,1,2)
  31. “String Quartet, 1931”
    a famous modernist piece by Ruth Crawford Seeger (UMRG:88,3,1)
  32. “Piano Variations”
    a famous modernist piece by Aaron Copland (UMRG:89,1,2)
  33. structure of Aaron Copland’s “Piano Variations”
    theme and variation (UMRG:891,2)
  34. From which part of the piece is the harmony and melody in Aaron Copland’s “Piano Variations” derived?
    the first motive (UMRG:89,1,2)
  35. cell
    a motive that is the basis of the harmony and melody in serial music (UMRG:89,1,2)
  36. How many notes does each cell of Aaron Copland’s “Piano Variations” contain?
    4 (UMRG:89,1,2)
  37. octave displacement
    moving notes of a motive into different octaves (UMRG:90,1,3)
  38. How does the first variation of Aaron Copland’s “Piano Variations” differ from the motive?
    addition of another melody in the bass (UMRG:90,1,2)
  39. melodic technique in the second variation of Aaron Copland’s “Piano Variations”
    octave displacement (UMRG:90,1,3)
  40. harmonic technique used in the third variation of Aaron Copland’s “Piano Variations”
    counterpoint (UMRG:90,1,3)
  41. rhythmic pattern in the fourth variation of Aaron Copland’s “Piano Variations”
    short‐long‐long (UMRG:90,1,4)
  42. harmonic element dominating the fifth variation of Aaron Copland’s “Piano Variations”
    quick block chords (UMRG:90,1,5)
  43. function of the low register of the sixth variation of Aaron Copland’s “Piano Variations”
    evoke thunder (UMRG:90,1,6)
  44. What part of “Piano Variations” returns in slightly altered form in the sixth variation?
    the original motive (UMRG:90,1,6)
  45. How does Aaron Copland alter the melody in the seventh variation of “Piano Variations”?
    using octave displacement to create an ascending contour (UMRG:90,1,7)
  46. chord ending Aaron Copland’s “Piano Variations”
    a C major triad (UMRG:90,1,7)
  47. Edgard Varese
    a famous experimentalist composer (UMRG:90,2,1)
  48. Edgard Varese’s country of birth
    France (UMRG:90,2,1)
  49. To what city did Edgard Varese move in his early twenties?
    New York City (UMRG:90,2,1)
  50. With what TWO instrumentations did Edgard Varese mainly experiment?
    percussion ensembles and electronic sounds (UMRG:90,2,1)
  51. pitch continuum
    a spectrum of every possible pitch (UMRG:90,2,0)
  52. goal of Edgard Varese’s “Hyperprism”
    to make the entire pitch continuum available (UMRG:90,2,0)
  53. “Ionisation”
    Edgard Varese’s first major composition (UMRG:90,2,0)
  54. For what instrumentation did Edgard Varese write “Ionisation”?
    13 percussionists (UMRG:90,2,0)
  55. Where did Edgard Varese premier “Ionisation”?
    Carnegie Hall (UMRG:90,1,1)
  56. “Ecuatorial”
    a famous composition by Edgard Varese (UMRG:91,1,0)
  57. What electronic instrument does Edgard Varese’s “Ecuatorial” feature?
    ondes martenot (UMRG:91,1,0)
  58. Henry Cowell
    a famous experimentalist composer (UMRG:91,1,1)
  59. What TWO musical devices did Henry Cowell famously use?
    “tone clusters” and special effects on the piano (UMRG:91,1,1)
  60. What technique does the pianist use in Henry Cowell’s “Aolian Harp”?
    strumming inside the piano (UMRG:91,1,1)
  61. What THREE techniques does the pianist use in Henry Cowell’s “The Banshee”?
    plucking, rubbing, and hitting the string, all while holding the damper pedal (UMRG:91,1,1)
  62. To what objects did Paul Rosenfeld compare Aaron Copland’s compositions?
    modernist skyscrapers (UMRG:89,1,1)
  63. How did Henry Cowell learn music?
    self‐taught (UMRG:91,1,2)
  64. To what THREE types of music did Henry Cowell listen before discovering classical music?
    Chinese opera, Gregorian chant, and Anglo‐Celtic folk tunes (UMRG:91,2,0)
  65. Why was Henry Cowell unable to work for most of the 1930s?
    incarceration (UMRG:91,2,1)
  66. What THREE traits made Henry Cowell welcome in the modernist community?
    his talent, dedication, and fresh perspective (UMRG:91,2,1)
  67. How did Henry Cowell contribute to modernist music, besides his compositions?
    publishing modernist scores (UMRG:91,2,1)
  68. From which TWO ethnic traditions did Henry Cowell draw material?
    Near East and Far East (UMRG:91,2,1)
  69. profession of Henry Cowell’s wife
    ethnomusicologist (UMRG:91,2,1)
  70. With which TWO teams of folk music collectors did Henry Cowell and his wife collaborate?
    the Lomaxes and the Seegers (UMRG:91,2,1)
  71. How educated was Henry Cowell?
    very little education (UMRG:91,1,2)
  72. In which state did Henry Cowell spend his childhood?
    California (UMRG:91,1,2)
  73. John Cage
    the most famous experimentalist composer (UMRG:91,2,2)
  74. With which THREE famous composers did John Cage study?
    Arnold Schoenberg, Edgard Varese, and Henry Cowell (UMRG:91,2,2)
  75. In what area did John Cage develop his own approach to composing?
    unconventional instrumentation (UMRG:92,1,0)
  76. “First Construction (In Metal)”
    a famous John Cage composition (UMRG:92,1,0)
  77. “Imaginary Landscape No. 1”
    a famous John Cage composition (UMRG:92,1,0)
  78. In which TWO pieces did John Cage first use unconventional instrumentation?
    “First Construction (In Metal)” and “Imaginary Landscape No. 1” (UMRG:92,1,0)
  79. For which instrument type did John Cage write “First Construction (In Metal)”?
    percussion (UMRG:92,1,0)
  80. For which FIVE instruments did John Cage write “Imaginary Landscape No. 1”?
    muted piano, two variable‐speed turntables, cymbal, and frequency recordings (UMRG:92,1,0)
  81. What TWO methods did John Cage use to give his music shape?
    timbre changes and mathematically derived time limits (UMRG:92,1,0)
  82. What instrument did John Cage invent in the early 1940s?
    the prepared piano (UMRG:92,1,0)
  83. In what TWO ways did modernist composers react to the Great Depression?
    continuing to write experimental music or questioning the value of “art for art’s sake” (UMRG:92,1,1)
  84. Why did classical composers begin to aim for broader appeal during the Great Depression?
    to contribute music that had a clear purpose in American society (UMRG:92,1,2)
  85. What societal change inspired Aaron Copland to write more broadly appealing music?
    creating a new listening public (UMRG:92,1,2)
  86. How did Aaron Copland move away from “absolute” music?
    by connecting his compositions with an extra‐musical plot, image, or concept (UMRG:92,1,2)
  87. “The Second Hurricane”
    a child play‐opera by Aaron Copland (UMRG:92,1,2)
  88. “Music for the Radio”
    a famous Aaron Copland piece (UMRG:92,1,2)
  89. What THREE difficulties did modernist composers face during the Great Depression?
    expense of hiring performers, difficulty of selling tickets, and lack of funding (UMRG:92,1,2)
  90. What THREE types of folk tunes did Aaron Copland use in his compositions?
    cowboy songs, Shaker songs, and Latin American dances (UMRG:92,2,0)
  91. What FOUR musical elements did Aaron Copland use to keep his populist compositions interesting?
    dissonance, mixed meter, unexpected harmonies, and syncopation (UMRG:92,2,1)
  92. populist or American compositions
    compositions written to appeal to a broad American audience (UMRG:92,2,1)
  93. What THREE musical elements did Aaron Copland use to make his populist compositions appealing?
    sing‐able melodies, unambiguous tonic pitches, and harmonies that move predictably (UMRG:92,2,1)
  94. What compositions made Aaron Copland wealthy between 1939 and 1949?
    commercial film scores (UMRG:92,2,1)
  95. Why was socialism and communism particularly attractive during the Great Depression?
    its belief that unchecked capitalism had led to the stock market crash (UMRG:92,2,2)
  96. Which two groups strongly favored left‐leaning groups during the Great Depression?
    artists and intellectuals (UMRG:92,2,3)
  97. Which American city had the largest Jewish population during the Great Depression?
    New York City (UMRG:92,2,3)
  98. To which American city did many Jews come to escape from Hitler?
    New York City (UMRG:92,2,3)
  99. What FIVE music‐related industries had their centers in New York City during the 1930s?
    popular song, classical music, theatre, broadcasting, and recording (UMRG:92,2,3)
  100. the American Communist Party
    a communist political organization that sponsored anti‐fascist cultural groups (UMRG:92,2,4)
  101. the Popular Front
    American communist attempt to tone down military rhetoric and garner broader support (UMRG:93,1,0)
  102. the Composers’ Collective
    an organization that encouraged composers to write music compatible with socialist ideology (UMRG:93,1,1)
  103. the Daily Worker
    a newspaper that held weekly song contests (UMRG:93,1,1)
  104. What THREE rewards did winners of the Daily Worker’s song contests receive?
    publicity, performances, and sometimes money (UMRG:93,1,1)
  105. mass songs
    broadly appealing songs that agreed with communist ideology (UMRG:93,1,1)
  106. What music industry job disappeared after sound film caught on?
    musicians accompanying silent films from the orchestra pit (UMRG:93,2,0)
  107. percentage of musicians unemployed between 1929 and 1934
    about 70% (UMRG:93,2,0)
  108. What government program increased employment opportunities for musicians during the Great Depression?
    the New Deal (UMRG:93,2,1)
  109. number one employer of musicians during the Great Depression
    the Works Progress Administration (UMRG:93,2,1)
  110. four arts projects created by the Works Progress Administration
    Federal Art Project, Federal Theatre Project, Federal Writers’ Project, and Federal Music Project (UMRG:93,2,1)
  111. How many musicians did the Federal Music Project employ?
    about 16,000 (UMRG:93,2,2)
  112. In which FOUR kinds of ensembles did the Federal Music Project employ musicians?
    dance bands, choruses, folk music concerts, and chamber ensembles (UMRG:93,2,2)
  113. How many symphony orchestras did the Federal Music Project sponsor?
    28 (UMRG:93,2,2)
  114. How did the Federal Music Project change towards the end of the 1930s?
    began to emphasize education and recreation over performance (UMRG:93,2,2)
  115. the Composers’ Forum‐Laboratory
    a branch of the Federal Music Project that employed classical and modernist composers (UMRG:94,1,1)
  116. What FOUR musicians’ jobs did the Federal Theatre Project offer?
    composer, music director, conductor, and pit musician (UMRG:94,1,2)
  117. Mark Blitzstein
    a composer employed by the Federal Theatre Project (UMRG:94,1,2)
  118. How did some government agencies publicize their activities and rationale?
    created documentaries (UMRG:94,2,1)
  119. Why did government agencies commission soundtracks for their documentaries?
    cheaper than getting sound on‐location (UMRG:94,2,1)
  120. Virgil Thomson
    a famous populist composer of the 1920s and 1930s (UMRG:94,2,2)
  121. In what city did Virgil Thomson live for much of the 1920s and 1930s?
    Paris (UMRG:94,2,2)
  122. What belief about music did Virgil Thomson adopt in Paris?
    deliberate simplicity (UMRG:94,2,2)
  123. What style of music did Virgil Thomson take credit for creating?
    the “Americana” sound (UMRG:94,2,2)
  124. What TWO musical styles did Virgil Thomson combine to create his “Americana” sound?
    French simplicity and American folksong (UMRG:94,2,2)
  125. “The Plow that Broke the Plains”
    a famous documentary scored by Virgil Thomson (UMRG:94,3,1)
  126. subject matter of “The Plow that Broke the Plains”
    the Dust Bowl (UMRG:94,3,1)
  127. Which government agency funded “The Plow that Broke the Plains”?
    the Resettlement Administration (UMRG:94,3,1)
  128. goal of the Resettlement Administration
    assisting or relocating victims of the Dust Bowl (UMRG:94,3,1)
  129. How does “The Plow that Broke the Plains” begin?
    a four‐minute prelude (UMRG:94,3,3)
  130. What role does the narrator play during the prelude of “The Plow that Broke the Plains”?
    describing the geography and history of the Great Plains (UMRG:94,3,3)
  131. What events does the narrator cover after the prelude of “The Plow that Broke the Plains”?
    how poor management and bad weather ruined the land and forced farmers west (UMRG:94,3,3)
  132. What kind of harmonies did Virgil Thomson use for the score of “The Plow that Broke the Plains”?
    clear and diatonic (UMRG:94,3,1)
  133. texture of the score of “The Plow that Broke the Plains”
    light (UMRG:94,3,1)
  134. key of “Pastorale (Grass)” from the score of “The Plow that Broke the Plains”
    major (UMRG:94,3,3)
  135. What TWO elements create a sense of optimism in “Pastorale (Grass)” from the score of “The Plow that Broke the Plains”?
    rising, diatonic motives and robust brass orchestration (UMRG:94,3,3)
  136. What TWO elements move “The Plow that Broke the Plains” forward?
    the narration and the music (UMRG:95,1,1)
  137. What TWO cowboy songs did Virgil Thomson use in the score of “The Plow that Broke the Plains?”
    “I Ride an Old Paint” and “Get Along Little Dogies” (UMRG:95,1,0)
  138. Which composer used the same cowboy tunes as the score of “The Plow that Broke the Plains” in one of his compositions?
    Aaron Copland (UMRG:95,1,0)
  139. “I Ride an Old Paint”
    a cowboy song borrowed by 1930s populist composers (UMRG:95,1,0)
  140. “Get Along Little Dogies”
    a cowboy song borrowed by 1930s populist composers (UMRG:95,1,0)
  141. structure of the documentary “The Plow that Broke the Plains”
    a series of tableaus (UMRG:95,1,1)
  142. five recurring images in “The Plow that Broke the Plains”
    horse‐drawn wagons, desolate buildings, broken fences, winds across sand dunes, and blades of grass struggling to survive (UMRG:95,1,1)
  143. In what kind of key does the section “Drought” begin in the score of “The Plow that Broke the Plains”?
    minor (UMRG:95,1,2)
  144. What TWO instrument families are used in the section “Drought” in the score of “The Plow that Broke the Plains”?
    stringed and woodwind instruments (UMRG:95,1,2)
  145. What TWO musical elements add a jazz tinge to the section “Drought” in the score of “The Plow that Broke the Plains”?
    syncopation and a muted trumpet near its end (UMRG:95,1,2)
  146. George Stoney
    a government employee who analyzed the effect of “The Plow that Broke the Plains” (UMRG:96,1,1)
  147. For which government department did George Stoney work?
    the Farm Security Administration (UMRG:96,1,1)
  148. To what other kind of rhetoric did George Stoney compare the effect of “The Plow that Broke the Plains”?
    an evangelical sermon (UMRG:96,1,1)
  149. What TWO elements did “The Plow that Broke the Plains” use to elicit an emotional response?
    powerful images and music (UMRG:96,1,1)
  150. What message did audiences draw from “The Plow that Broke the Plains”?
    that the struggles of rural Americans were respected and understood (UMRG:96,1,1)
  151. What popular tune is used in the section “Wind and Dust” in the score of “The Plow that Broke the Plains”?
    the Doxology or “Ole Hundredth,” a well‐known hymn (UMRG:96,1,0)
  152. How is the tune of the Doxology altered in the section “Wind and Dust” in the score of “The Plow that Broke the Plains”?
    changed to a minor mode (UMRG:96,1,0)
  153. With what other communist group was the Composers’ Collective affiliated?
    the Workers’ Music League (UMRG:96,2,2)
  154. Which TWO German composers most influenced the Composers’ Collective?
    Kurt Weill and Hanns Eisler (UMRG:96,2,2)
  155. What documentary did Virgil Thomson score following “The Plow that Broke the Plains”?
    “The River” (UMRG:96,1,3)
  156. Why did Kurt Weill and Hanns Eisler reject modernism?
    felt that it was elitist and bourgeois (UMRG:96,3,0)
  157. two main characteristics of the first efforts of the Composers’ Collective
    vigorous rhythms and unapologetic dissonances (UMRG:96,3,0)
  158. What effect did the Composers’ Collective wish to convey with strong rhythms and dissonances?
    a militant rejection of the bourgeois (UMRG:96,3,0)
  159. Why did the Composers’ Collective abandon its early efforts?
    realized it lacked broad appeal (UMRG:96,3,0)
  160. What harmonic system did the Composers’ Collective use to achieve a broad appeal?
    common practice tonality (UMRG:96,3,1)
  161. “The Cradle Will Rock”
    a famous music‐theater by Mark Blitzstein (UMRG:97,1,1)
  162. What dilemma did Mark Blitzstein address in “The Cradle Will Rock”?
    the role musicians could or should play in improving the economic situation (UMRG:97,1,1)
  163. In what fictional town is “The Cradle Will Rock” set?
    Steeltown, U.S.A. (UMRG:97,1,2)
  164. Mr. Mister
    the wealthy magnate in “The Cradle Will Rock” (UMRG:97,1,2)
  165. Mike Foreman
    the union leader in “the Cradle Will Rock” (UMRG:97,1,2)
  166. In what city did Mark Blitzstein begin his career?
    Philadelphia (UMRG:97,1,3)
  167. Which composer converted Mark Blitzstein to writing music for the general public?
    Hanns Eisler (UMRG:97,1,3)
  168. From where did Mark Blitzstein derive his music?
    Broadway and American popular song (UMRG:97,1,3)
  169. Which government organization funded “The Cradle Will Rock”?
    the Federal Theatre Project (UMRG:97,1,4)
  170. Orson Welles
    a famous director who worked on “The Cradle Will Rock” (UMRG:97,1,4)
  171. John Houseman
    the producer of “The Cradle Will Rock” (UMRG:97,1,4)
  172. Why did the Federal Theatre Project postpone the premiere of “The Cradle Will Rock”?
    current events began to correspond to the plot (UMRG:97,1,4)
  173. How did Mark Blitzstein react to the postponement of the premiere of “The Cradle Will Rock”?
    finding another theatre in which he could perform it himself (UMRG:98,1,1)
  174. Who played the music for the first performance of “The Cradle Will Rock”?
    Mark Blitzstein (UMRG:98,1,1)
  175. How did the actors in “The Cradle Will Rock” circumvent union rules in its first performance?
    speaking their lines from seats in the audience (UMRG:98,1,1)
  176. Dauber the Artist
    a major character in “The Cradle Will Rock” (UMRG:98,1,2)
  177. Yasha the Violinist
    a major character in “The Cradle Will Rock” (UMRG:98,1,2)
  178. From what piece does Mrs. Mister’s car horn play a motive in “The Cradle Will Rock”?
    Beethoven’s Egmont Overture (UMRG:98,1,2)
  179. inspiration for Beethoven’s Egmont Overture
    a play by Wolfgang von Goethe (UMRG:100,1,2)
  180. What moment in Goethe’s play is signaled by the notes sung as “yoo hoo” by Mrs. Mister in “The Cradle Will Rock”?
    Count Egmont’s execution (UMRG:100,1,2)
  181. rhythm of Dauber and Yasha’s lines in “The Cradle Will Rock”
    dotted (UMRG:100,1,2)
  182. rhythm used in the Egmont Overture motive played by Mrs. Mister’s car horn in “The Cradle Will Rock”
    dotted (UMRG:100,1,2)
  183. In which scene does the title song of “The Cradle Will Rock” appear?
    scene seven (UMRG:100,1,7)
  184. six characters appearing in scene seven of “The Cradle Will Rock”
    Mike Forman, Moll the prostitute, and the four members of the Liberty Committee (UMRG:100,1,7)
  185. What THREE musical elements of the title song of “The Cradle Will Rock” echo a workers’ chorus?
    a march‐like bass line, strong rhythms, and emphatic beat (UMRG:101,1,4)
  186. What kind of person usually sings a workers’ chorus?
    a worker who has some musical ability and signed up to be part of the chorus (UMRG:101,1,4)
  187. Silvestre Revueltas
    a famous Mexican composer (UMRG:101,4,1)
  188. “Ocho por Radio” or “Eight Musicians Broadcasting”
    a famous Silvestre Revueltas piece (UMRG:101,4,2)
  189. For what EIGHT instruments was “Ocho por Radio” written?
    a trumpet, two violins, a double bass, a cello, a clarinet, a bassoon, and percussion (UMRG:101,4,2)
  190. Which famous composer was inspired by “Ocho por Radio”?
    Aaron Copland (UMRG:101,4,2)
  191. neoclassical
    a musical style developed and popularized in the 1920s (UMRG:102,1,1)
  192. three characteristics of the neoclassical style
    clarity of form, playfulness, and balance (UMRG:102,1,1)
  193. Igor Stravinsky
    a famous composer who founded the neoclassical style (UMRG:102,1,1)
  194. ostinati
    short, repeated melodic fragments (UMRG:102,1,1)
  195. bitonality
    melodies in two different keys occurring simultaneously (UMRG:102,1,1)
  196. What structure best describes the form of “Ocho por Radio”?
    ABA (UMRG:102,1,2)
  197. What TWO stylistic elements do the two A sections of “Ocho por Radio” share?
    quick tempo and festive mood (UMRG:102,1,1)
  198. How does the B section of “Ocho por Radio” differ stylistically from the A sections?
    slower and languid (UMRG:102,1,2)
  199. Why is “Ocho por Radio” relatively difficult to follow?
    polyrhythms and mixed meters obscure the downbeat (UMRG:102,1,2)
  200. Why was Aaron Copland put on the government watch list for communists?
    “following the party line” by moving toward folk music (UMRG:104,1,1)
  201. What invention made Western art music available to all Americans?
    the phonograph (UMRG:103,1,3)
  202. What TWO styles of music did over 62% of people prefer on the radio in 1938, according to “Fortune” magazine?
    classical or opera (UMRG:103,2,0)
  203. How did the Metropolitan Opera stay afloat during the Great Depression?
    by taking part in radio broadcasts (UMRG:103,1,4)
  204. What type of classical music was usually performed in the United States during the 1930s?
    masterpieces from the past (UMRG:103,2,1)
  205. What TWO musical styles did Arturo Toscanini prefer?
    Classical and Romantic (UMRG:103,2,2)
  206. three famous 1930s orchestra conductors
    Serge Koussevitzky, Arturo Toscanini, and Leopold Stokowski (UMRG:103,2,2)
  207. What TWO musical styles did Serge Koussevitzky prefer?
    French and Russian music (UMRG:103,2,2)
  208. What kind of compositions did Leopold Stokowsky prefer?
    contemporary (UMRG:104,1,0)
  209. Which TWO orchestras did Arturo Toscanini conduct in the 1930s?
    the New York Philharmonic and the NBC orchestra (UMRG:103,2,2)
  210. Which orchestra did Serge Koussevitzky conduct in the 1930s?
    the Boston Symphony (UMRG:103,2,2)
  211. Which orchestra did Leopold Stokowski conduct in the 1930s?
    the Philadelphia Orchestra (UMRG:103,2,2)
  212. arguably the most popular modern composer in 1930s United States
    Igor Stravinsky (UMRG:104,1,1)
  213. William Grant Still
    “the Dean of African‐American Composers” (UMRG:104,1,2)
  214. “Afro‐American Symphony”
    a famous piece by William Grant Still (UMRG:104,1,2)
  215. Why was “Afro‐American Symphony” groundbreaking?
    first symphony by a black composer to be performed by a major orchestra (UMRG:104,1,2)
  216. With which famous composer did William Grant Still study?
    Edgard Varese (UMRG:104,1,2)
  217. At which TWO colleges did William Grant Still study?
    Wilberforce University and Oberlin College (UMRG:104,1,2)
  218. What FOUR subjects did William Grant Still study in college?
    violin, cello, oboe, and composition (UMRG:104,1,2)
  219. With which blues musician did William Grant Still study?
    W. C. Handy (UMRG:104,1,2)
  220. For what THREE formats did William Grant Still arrange music in the 1920s?
    dance bands, radio, and vaudeville (UMRG:104,1,2)
  221. From which organization did William Grant Still receive an award in 1934?
    the Guggenheim Foundation (UMRG:104,1,2)
  222. What TWO musical elements did William Grant Still combine in movie scoring?
    symphonic string sections and jazz orchestra writing (UMRG:104,1,2)
  223. the Harlem Renaissance
    a 1920s and 1930s African‐American arts movement (UMRG:104,2,1)
  224. three prominent Harlem Renaissance intellectuals
    W.E.B. Du Bois, Alain Locke, James Weldon Johnson (UMRG:104,2,1)
  225. goal of the Harlem Renaissance
    show that African Americans were as capable of cultural achievement as other races (UMRG:104,2,1)
  226. Paul Laurence Dunbar
    a famous poet who contributed a verse to “Afro‐American Symphony” (UMRG:104,3,1)
  227. What instrument dominates the development of “Afro‐American Symphony”?
    violin (UMRG:105,1,2)
  228. two jazz instruments used in William Grant Still’s “Afro‐American Symphony”
    banjo and vibraphone (UMRG:105,1,3)
  229. What form does William Grant Still use for “Afro‐American Symphony”?
    12‐bar blues (UMRG:105,1,2)
  230. beginning section of William Grant Still’s “Afro‐American Symphony”
    English horn solo (UMRG:104,1,1)
  231. What section of the piece does the bass clarinet mimic in William Grant Still’s “Afro‐American Symphony”?
    the English horn solo (UMRG:104,1,3)
  232. Harry Pace
    W. C. Handy’s source of business knowledge (UMRG:39,2,1)

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