Neurotransmitters/Neuropeptides

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Author:
azbenchaar
ID:
35877
Filename:
Neurotransmitters/Neuropeptides
Updated:
2010-09-19 21:38:11
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Neurotransmitters Neuropeptides
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Neurotransmitters/Neuropeptides
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  1. Acetylcholine (Ach); Locations and Actions?
    Locations: Neuromuscular junctions, most synapses of autonomic nervous system, retina, and many parts of the brain

    Actions: Excites skeletal muscles, and has excitatory or inhibitory effects on smooth muscle and glands depending on location
  2. Glutamate (excitatory amino acid); Locations and Actions?
    Locations: Cerebral cortex and brainstem, retina

    Actions: Accounts for about 75% of all excitatory synaptic transmission in the brain; involved in learning and memory
  3. Aspartate (excitatory amino acid); Locations and Actions?
    Locations: Spinal cord

    Actions: Effects similar to those of glutamate
  4. Glycine (inhibitory amino acid); Locations and Actions?
    Locations: Inhibitory neurons of the brain, spinal cord, and retina; (most common in the spinal cord)

    Actions: Inhibitory neurotransmitter
  5. GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid)(inhibitory amino acid); Locations and Actions?
    Locations: Thalamus, hypothalamus, cerebellum, occipital lobes of cerebrum, and retina; (most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain)

    Actions: Inhibitory neurotransmitter
  6. Norepinephrine (monoamine/catecholamine); Locations and Actions?
    Locations: Sympathetic nervous system, cerebral cortex, hypothalamus, brainstem, cerebellum, and spinal cord

    Actions: Involved in dreaming, waking, and mood; excites cardiac muscle; can excite or inhibit smooth muscle and glands depending on location
  7. Epinephrine (monoamine/catecholamine); Locations and Actions?
    Locations: Hypothalamus, thalamus, spinal cord, and adrenal medulla

    Actions: Effects similar to those of norepinephrine
  8. Dopamine (monoamine/catecholamine); Locations and Actions?
    Locations: Hypothalamus, limbic system, cerebral cortex, and retina; (highly concentrated in substantia nigra of midbrain)

    Actions: Involved in elevation of mood and control of skeletal muscles
  9. Serotonin (monoamine); Locations and Actions?
    Locations: Hypothalamus, limbic system, cerebellum, retina, and spinal cord; also secreted by blood platelets and intestinal cells

    Actions: Involved in sleepiness, alertness, thermoregulation, and mood
  10. Histamine (monoamine); Locations and Actions?
    Locations: Hypothalamus; also secreted by mast cells of connective tissue and basophils of the blood

    Actions: Potent vasodilator, bronchoconstriction, bronchial smooth muscle contraction, separation of endothelial cells (responsible for hives), and pain and itching due to insect stings; the primary receptors involved in allergic rhinitis symptoms and motion sickness; sleep regulation; (actions depend on which histamine receptors (H1-H4) histamine binds)
  11. Substance P (neuropeptide); Locations and Actions?
    Locations: Basal nuclei, midbrain, hypothalamus, cerebral cortex, small intestine, and pain-receptor neurons

    Actions: Mediates pain transmission
  12. Enkephalins (neuropeptide); Locations and Actions?
    Locations: Hypothalamus, limbic system, pituitary, pain pathways of spinal cord, and nerve endings of digestive tract

    Actions: Act as analgesics by inhibiting substance P; inhibit intestinal motility; secretion increases sharply in women in labor
  13. β-endorphin (neuropeptide); Locations and Actions?
    Locations: Digestive tract, spinal cord, and many parts of the brain; also secreted as a hormone by the pituitary

    Actions: Suppresses pain; reduces perception of fatigue and may produce "runner's high" in athletes
  14. Cholecystokinin (CCK)(neuropeptide); Locations and Actions?
    Locations: Cerebral cortex and small intestine

    Actions: Suppresses appetite

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