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A person's direction, intensity and likelihood of doing something, and the forces that influence these dynamics.
- - How willing are you to perform a specific act?
- - How positively disposed are you to do something?
- - How "turned on" are you about doing something?
Deficiencies (biological, psychological, social) that energize or trigger behaviors aimed at satisfying these deficiencies, or needs.
- - Unfulfilled needs, if strong enough, create a tension within us that influence us to act.
- - Needs are typically produced by innate drives or instincts, but can also be produced by learning. (e.g., we all need to eat, but not everyone needs challenging work to be motivated)
Maslow's Needs Hierarchy Theory
McClelland's Learned Needs Theory
- Need for achievement
- - Desire for challenging and somewhat risky goals, feedback, recognition.
- Need for affiliation
- - Desire to seek approval, conform, and avoid conflict.
- - Try to project a favorable self-image.
- Need for power
- - Desire to control one's environment.
- - Personalized versus socialized power.
Expectancy Theory of Motivation
The anticipated satisfaction or dissatisfaction that an individual feels toward an outcome.
Characteristics of Effective Feedback
Multisource (360-degree) Feedback
Uses various behavioral methods to help clients identify and achieve goals, and effectively solve people problems and behavioral/stylistic issues.
Just-in-time personal development using feedback and other techniques.
- Outcome/input ratio
- - inputs - what employee contributes (e.g., skill)
- - outcomes - what employee receives (e.g., pay)
- Comparison other
- - person/people against whom we compare our ratio
- Equity evaluation
- - compare outcome/input ratio with the comparison other
Groups/individuals who provide us with a frame of reference/measuring stick to evaluate our lives or life-specific situations.
When we don't measure up, we can feel relative deprivation, or lower in value relative to those we are using as a frame of reference.
Challenges of Motivating Employees
- Revised employment relationship
- - Due to globalization, technology, restructuring
- - Potentially undermines trust and commitment
- Flatter organizations
- - Fewer supervisors to monitor performance
- Changing workforce
- - Gen-X/Gen-Y bring different expectations
- - "It's all about me"