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how is HIV transmitted?
- body fluids
- blood and blood products
who are the high risk individuals for HIV1?
- IV drug users-active or former
- recipients of blood transfusions
- HIV infected organs
- unsafe sex
what are the two parts of the life cycle of HIV1
- establishment of infection
- production of new virus
what is the process of establishment of infection for the life cycle of HIV1?
- binding to target/host cell
- entry through wall of target/host cell
- reverse transcription
- infection established
- latent period
what is the process of the production of new virus in the life cycle of HIV1?
- activation of host cell
- budding from host cell: release
- host cell out come
what are the laboratory categories for the classification system for adolescents and adults?
- >500 CD4+ lymphocytes/mm3
- 200-499 CD4+ lymphocytes/mm3
- <200 CD4+ lymphocytes/mm3
what are the clinical categories for the classification system for adolescents and adults for HIV1?
- AIDS-indicator conditions
what is the incubation period for HIV1?
ranges from the time of infection to when symptoms start, can be more than 15 years
what is acute seroconversion syndrome?
- initial infection-flu
- early HIV-no symptoms CD4+ >500
- intermediate HIV CD4+ 200-500
- late stage HIVE CD4+ 50-200 AIDS
what are the four disease associated with late stages of acute seroconversion syndrome?
- opportunistic infections
- wasting syndrome
what are the oral manifestations for HIV1 (extraoral)?
- lymphadeopathy-palpation for enlarged lymph nodes
- skin lesions-kaposi's sarcoma, purpura, herpetic lesions
what are the oral manifestations for HIV1 (intraoral)?
- fungal infections-candidiasis
- viral infections-herpes simplex
- bacterial infections-gingival, periodontal
what are the dental assessments for HIV1? how do you treat it?
- severe pain
- mastication problems
- dental caries
- treat with fluoride
what is xerostomia? how is it treated?
- oral manifestation of HIV1
- salivary gland disease or medications
- dry mouth
- treated with fluoride and pt diet
how is HIV1 transmitted in Children?
- infected blood
- sexual abuse
what are the clinical manifestations of HIV1 in children?
- faster incubation-immature immune system and less resistance to infection
- latent period-months after birth to years
how is HIV1 diagnosed in children?
what are frequently found conditions of HIV1 in children?
- failure to thrive-developmental delay
- hepatomegaly; splenomegaly
- generalized lymphadenopathy
- chronic pneumontitis
- progressive encephalopathy
what are the oral findings of HIV1 in children?
- oral lesions
- herpetic gingivostomatitis-sore mouth and poor oral intake
- apthous ulcers
- hairy leukoplakia
- linear gingival erythema
what is the treatment and management of HIV1 in children?
- counseling-very important to educate the parent and get the child help
what is in the medications for HIV1 for children to mask the taste and what does it cause?
- high sucrose
- high dental caries
how can HIV1 be prevented?
- community education
- prevent the modes of transmission
- primary prevention-slow rate of new cases
- secondary prevention-reduce rate of transmission and introduce treatment early