Neurophysiology

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Author:
mizzoupt
ID:
35922
Filename:
Neurophysiology
Updated:
2010-09-21 10:46:15
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Nerve Cells Resting Membrane potential
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Description:
Nerve Cells and Resting Membrane potential
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  1. ______ ______ ______: found in developing and adult brains.
    Neural Stem Cells
  2. True or False: The Nervous System has an infinite ability to repair itself.
    False
  3. Dendrites are responsible for?
    A. major input sites from cells/receive info from other cells
    B. major cite of NT production
    C. major output/transmit info other cells
    A. major input site from cells/receive info from other cells (project from soma)
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  4. Axons are responsible for output of info via NT's and originate from _______ _______?
    axon hillock
  5. Axons end in the ________ _______ where they release NT into the _________ ______.
    • Presynaptic terminal
    • synaptic cleft
  6. _____________: contains genetic material; directs metabolic activity of cell.
    Nucleus
  7. ______________: converts nutrients to energy.
    Mitochondria
  8. _____________: rough: synthesizes and transports proteins; smooth: synthesizes and transports lipids.
    Endoplasmic Reticulum
  9. __________: protein synthesis; on rough= protein for neuron; on smooth= NTs
    Ribosomes
  10. ___________: packages NT
    Golgi apparatus
  11. NT transport: _________: from soma to synapse; Kinesin.
    Anterograde
  12. NT transport: ___________: from synapse to soma: Dynein.
    Retrograde
  13. __________: has only one process extending from soma, branching into dendrites or axon terminals.
    Unipolar
  14. _________: two primary processes from cell body.
    Bipolar
  15. __________: multiple dendrites and single axon
    Multipolar
  16. __________: appear to have single projection that divides into axonal roots.
    Pseudounipolar
  17. ______ _______: support cells: provide metabolic support, insulate, protect, reinforce, repair, and cleanup damaged areas.
    Glial Cells
  18. __________: • Star-shaped• CNS• Support and also signaling• Stimulated by:– Signals from other cells– Changes in shape or pressure• Diffuse Ca++ through openings (Gap Junctions) to otherAstrocytes when stimulated• Can release NT: Glutamate• No synaptic contacts• Do not generate Action Potentials (APs)• Scavengers: take up extra K+ and NTs and remove debris• Connect Neurons and blood vessels• Pathway for migrating neurons
    Astrocytes
  19. ___________: myelinate CNS; insulate axon; envelop several axons to different neurons.
    Oligodendrocytes
  20. ________ ________: Myelinate PNS; ingest and remove bacteria and debris; envelope one or several axons.
    Schwann Cells
  21. ________ ________ _______: • Cells have an excitable membrane:– Nerves, Muscles, some glands• At Rest = not generating impulses• Inside of cell is negative compared to outside
    Resting Membrane Potential
  22. __________: atoms or molecules with a net charge
    Ions
  23. _______: cause chem reactions in neurons __________: shape of neuron
    ___________: sensitive to NT
    • Enzymes
    • Cytoskeleton
    • Receptors
  24. _____ ______: Hydrophilic ends = exposed to watery insideand outside– Hydrophobic middle = in membrane– 4-6 similar proteins bond to form a pore
    Ion channels
  25. _____ _____: formed by proteins– Use energy released from ATP breakdown totransport ions across membrane
    Ion pumps
  26. _______ _______: ions flow DOWNgradient until EQUALon both sides
    Concentration gradient
  27. _______ ________ ________: walls of capillaries thatlimits K+ movement into extracellular fluid ofbrain
    Blood-brain Barrier
  28. _________: take up extracellular K+when concentrations rise and disperse the K+over network of astrocytic processes
    Glia (Astrocytes)

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