Unit 1

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Unit 1
2010-10-15 11:11:39
AP US History

Beginning to Colonial America
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  1. Bering Streight (Berengia)
    • Land bridge
    • First americans crossed over 15,000 to 17,000 years ago
  2. Southern Societies
    • Incas in Peru
    • Mayas and Aztecs in Mexico
    • Elaborate
    • Written language
  3. Northern Societies
    • Nomadic
    • Hunting, Gathering, and Fishing
  4. Sowthwest Tribes
    Tended to settle in one place and practice agriculture
  5. Great Plains Indians
    Hunted large game and followed them
  6. Eastern Woodland Indians
    Various water sources used for trade, transportation, and growing food
  7. Reasons for Europe looking Westward
    • God
    • Glory
    • Gold
  8. Leif Erikson and the Norsemen
    Explored parts of North America as early as 100 AD
  9. Europe in the Middle Ages
    Didnt look westward
  10. Incentive for Europe to look for land
    • Population increase after the Black Death
    • Rise in Commerce
    • Distance from the Pope
    • Riches from the far East
    • Spread Christianity
    • More territory
  11. Prince Henry "the Navigator"
    • Portugal
    • Had a navigation school
    • Explored the western coast of africa
    • Spread christianty
  12. Christopher Columbus
    • Sailed west to go east
    • Saiked for spain
    • Died never knowing what he discovered
  13. Cortes
    Conquered the Aztecs
  14. Pizarro
    Conquered the Incas in Peru
  15. Spain's Treatment of Natives
    • Enslaved them
    • Converted them to Catholicism
    • Killed them
    • Spread diseases
    • Out of 5 million 90% of the natives died due to disease in the first 75 years the Europeans were in America
  16. First Africans in America
    Brougt to Jamestown in 1619
  17. Tension between Spain and England
    • Spain dominated through the 1500s
    • In 1580 piracy on the part of the English
    • 1588 Phillip II and the Spanish Armada attacked England and was defeated which led to English dominance in the North Atlantic and America
  18. Reasons for Brotish Colonization in the "New World"
    • Economics - Mercantilism, New life
    • Religion - Freedom, too much Roman Influence on the Anglican Church
  19. Goal of Mercantilism
    To gain a nations total wealth
  20. Mercantilism (belief)
    • Exract as much wealth as possible
    • Export as little wealth as possible
  21. Mercantilism was followed by:
    Most European coumtries (1500s - 1600s)
  22. "Favorable Trade"
    • British colonies in America provided England with this
    • England took raw materials and made them into manufactured products.
    • Mabufactured goods were more expensive than raw materials
  23. Martin Luther (Germany 1517)
    • Believed you could attain salvation wih God through good works and a direct relationship with God
    • He also believed the bible, not the church, was the authentic voice of God
    • Disagreed with the Roman Catholic Church
    • Part of the Protestant Refromation
  24. John Calvin (Calvanism)
    • Swiss theologian who rejected Catholic beliefs that human institutions could affect an individuals slavation
    • Believed in predestination
    • Part of the Protestant Refromation
  25. Predestination
    Belief that God elected people for salvation
  26. King Hernry VIII
    Was denied a divorce by the pope so he broke England's ties with the Roman Catholic Church
  27. Queen Mary the Blood
    • Henry VIII's daughter who took the Catholic Church back to the Anglican Church
    • Violently persecuted those who didn't relinquish their protestant beliefs
    • Caused many protestants to flee England
  28. Puritans
    • Those in England who wanted to purify the Church of England from within
    • Felt dissatisfaction towards King James I
  29. Puritan Separtists (Pilgrims)
    So radical they left England to form their own congregations
  30. Puritans in Ireland
    • Subjugation of Ireland
    • Led to the same type of thinking as the British Subjugation of Native Americans
    • Believed the Irish to be "not as good as" the English
  31. Early Brtish Colonization in the New World
    Most early attempts failed
  32. Sir Humphrey Gilbert
    • Lost at sea off of Newfoundland
    • British
  33. Sir Walter Raleigh
    • Roanoke "Lost Colony"
    • British
  34. Giovanni da Verazano
    • Explored Atlantic Coast between Florida and Newfoundland
    • Fur trapping
    • French
  35. Jacques Cartier
    • Sailed the Lawrence, solidified and created relationships with the natives
    • French
  36. French colonization
    • Couldn settle in florida due to the spanish
    • Initially fished for cod and salmon but then began to trade furs
  37. Dutch in America
    • Purchased what is now Manhattan in New York for the equivalent of $24
    • New Amsterdam
  38. Dutch West India Company
    • Established the colony of New Netherland with 30 families
    • Controlled it untill 1664 when the governor surrendered the territory to the Brittish
  39. Jamestown and the Virginia Company (1607)
    • Virginia company of London recieved a charter from King James I
    • Jamestown went through a statving time
    • Disease killed people
    • Native American attacks
  40. Joint - Stock Companies
    Companies that went over to the new world in hopes of finding new wealth
  41. How did the English colonies become so populated since the condtiions were so tough in Virginia?
    • Tobacco- led to huge profits
    • Headright system - land was used to attra t settlers
    • Endentured servants
    • House of Burgesses - first elected representative body in a colony was created
    • Massmigrations - religious strife between Catholics and Protestants
    • Economic conditions for the average Englishman became tougher
  42. George Calvert (Lord Baltimore)
    Dreamed of Maryland as a money making venture and a haven for persecuted English Catholics
  43. Cecilia (2nd Lord Baltimore)
    Recieved a charter from King Charles II and founded the colony of Maryland in 1632
  44. Maryland Toleration Act (1649)
    • aka, Act Concerning Religion
    • Assured religious freedom to all Catholics.
    • Done out of desperation because protestants quickly outnumbered Catholics
  45. Bacon's Rebellion (1676)
    • Nathaniel Bacon led a group of Virginia western frontiersmen (Piedmont, poor, mountain) against the wealthy establishment of the costal area (tidewater) and the Virginia House of Burgesses
    • Bacons group demanded that Berkley give the frontiersmen protection against Indian Attacks, more say in the government, the ability to trade furs with the indians, more representation
  46. Colonial regions were diverse in
    • Method founded
    • Geographical features
    • Economies
  47. What is the significance of Bacon's Rebellion?
    • It was the largest and most powerful insurrection against authority in the history of American Colonies
    • Bacon's group burned Jamestown and forced Berkley into exile
    • Continuing struggle to settle the border between colonial and Indian territory
    • Government must meet at least some of the wants and demands of all people including the poor and labor clssses.
    • Another possible reason while famers will turn to African slave labor
  48. Pilgrims
    In 1620, religious separtists from the Church of England, sailed on the Mayflower and landed at Plymouth Rock in Massachusetts
  49. Hardships in Puritan New England
    • Disease
    • Blown off course
    • Couldn't grow food in the Winter
    • Ran out of Alcohol
    • Saved by the Indians after starving time, after good harvest, celebrated with indians... became thanksgiving
  50. In 1630 puritans were so dissatisfied...
    they went to the New World, landed in Boston, North of Plymouth and founded the Massachusetts Bay Colony (Charter from King James)
  51. Religious Influence in New England ("Theocracy")
    • Religious Leaders were most powerful
    • Elected Members (Predestined)
    • Family was important (Conformity)
    • Intolerant (Came for freedom but werent tolerant of others)
    • Education was important so everyone could read the bible
  52. John Winthrop
    Author of "City Upon a Hill"
  53. Thomas Hooker
    Puritan minister led followers to an area in the Connecticut River Valley and founded the Colony of Connecticut
  54. Fundamental Orders of Connecticut
    Gave more people (men only) a say in the Government
  55. Roger Williams and Anne Hutchinson
    • Questioned policies and authority of church leaders in Massachusetts
    • Banished from Massachusetts, fled South
    • Williams recieved a Royal Charter and formed Rhode Island
    • those seeking religious freedom migrated from Massachusetts to Rhode Island
  56. At first who got along better, New England settlers or Jamestown?
    New England
  57. Wars in New England
    • Pequot War (1637)
    • King Phillips War (1675)
    • Indians allied with the New Englanders against other tribes
  58. King Phillips War (1675)
    wiped put the wampanoag indians under the leadership of Metacomet (King Phillip) Mohaks worket with Massachusetts settlers due to their hatred of the Wampanoags
  59. Northern Colonies
    New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island (Roger Williams), Connecticut (Thomas Hooker)
  60. What happened in England between 1642 and 1649?
    British Civil War
  61. During the British Civil War...
    • King Charles I disbanded parliament in 1629
    • Parliament forces beheaded King Charles I
    • Oliver Cromwell is put as leader (protectors) and head of parliament
  62. Who succeeded Oliver Cromwell
    King Charles II
  63. What did King Charles II reward his supporters with?
    • Restoration Colonies
    • - Carolinas (1663 and 1665)
    • - New Netherland to the Duke of York
    • - Quaker Colonies: Pennsylvania (1682) and Delaware (1702)
  64. Buffer Zone
    Georgia was added in 1732 by King George as a buffer zoned from Spanish/Indian Territory
  65. Why was Pennsylvania given to William Penn?
    To pay the Kings debt to his father
  66. Willaim Penn was....
    a quaker
  67. Quakers were...
    • Pacifists
    • they wanted Religious freedom
  68. Middle Colonies
    • New York
    • New Jersey
    • Pennsylvania
    • Delaware
  69. Most Southern Colonies were either
    • proprietary (given as a gift by the king)
    • or Royal (controlled by the King)
  70. Virginia
    Bacon's Rebellion and Class Divisions
  71. Maryland
    Haven for Catholics until overpowered by protestants, tobacco, slaves and indentured servants
  72. Carolinas
    • were granted to lords separated in 1712
    • charleston was the major city
  73. Georgia
    Buffer Zone
  74. Characteristics of Southern Colonies
    • wealthy and poor class dividions
    • cash crops
    • reliant on slave labor
    • religious toleration was only to make money
    • mainly rural, not urban
  75. Atlantic Ocean
    served as the Middle Passage for Slave Trade
  76. Reorganizing the British Colonies
    • In the 1660s England began to see the profitability of organizing the colonies
    • - results in
    • - Mercantilism
    • - Navigatin Acts (3)
    • - Dominion of New England
  77. Navigation Acts
    • 1660 - Closed the colonies to all trade except with England
    • 1663 - All goods being sent from Europe to the colonies had to pass through England so they could be inspected and taxed
    • 1673 - duties on costal trade amoung the colonies and appointed customs officials to enforce the Navigation Acts... eventually sent "Admiralty Courts" to hear cases involving these acts (they were payed more for guilty convictions)
  78. Positive effects of the Navigation Acts on the Colonies
    • created a ship building industry in America
    • British provided a market for many raw materials
    • even though people were mad, the Navigation Acts served teh colonies qwll for 100 years (1660s to 1670s)
  79. The Dominion of New England
    • New England did the most manufacturing
    • Charles II took power away from colonial governments in New England and New York in order to enforce the Navigation Acts
    • After his death in 1685 James II took over, created the Dominion, and put Sir Edmond Andros as the supervisor
  80. In 1688 William and Mary took control because
    The Glorious Revolution broke out in England against Kimg James II
  81. Characteristics of the Northern Colonies
    • Long, Cold Winters, Montains
    • no large scale farming
    • english settlers lumbering, ship building, fishing, iron works, wool production
  82. Salem Witch Trials
    • 70s - 80s
    • 1692, 150 accused, 19 hanged, and 1 trampled
  83. Characteristics of the Middle Colonies
    • Ethnically Diverse
    • Busy Shipping Ports
    • Lush Farmland
    • Grew wheat and rye
    • raised beef and pork
    • Weaving, shoemaking, cabinet making, and artisan crafts
    • indentured servants
  84. Religious Toleration in the Colonies
    At first there was no choice because there was too many different religions
  85. Anti Catholics
    • most people who came over were against Catholicism and Catholics weren't numerous enough to make a difference
    • they lost political power in Maryland by 1691
    • they had to hold services in private homes
  86. Jews in the Americas
    • Few in number
    • resided mostly in New York
    • Could only practice openly in Rhode Island
    • Couldnt hold political office in most areas
  87. Lack of Diety and the Diversity of Religion led to...
  88. Great Awakening split congregations into two groups...
    The New Lights and The Old Nights
  89. New Lights
    • Man had control over his own life, beliefs, and destiny
    • led to more acceptance of the Enlightenment way of thinking
  90. John Locke
    • Natural Rights of Man
    • Life, Liberty, and Property
    • Enlightenment thinker
  91. Jeferson used what Enlightenment thinkers ideas in the Declaration of Independence
    John Locke
  92. What is Deism?
    the belief in God and that he may have created the Earth but he had a much more hands - off approach and let nature take its course
  93. Many Enlightened leaders were
  94. Education in Colonial America by 1647
    every town in Massachusetts by law had to support education
  95. Church Schools in Maryland
    Run by Quakers and other Religious Denominations
  96. Dame Schools
    For Widows and Unmarried Women
  97. What aspect of life in Maryland had a higher rate than European Countries
    Over half the males in Colonial population could read and write by the Revolution
  98. Harvard (1636)
    for Puritan Theologians
  99. William and Mary (1693)
    for Anglican Clergy
  100. Yale (1701)
    "anti-harvard" - less liberal
  101. College of New Jersey (Princeton) (1746)
    founded by Jonathon Edwards as a New Light
  102. Kings College (columbia) (1754)
    first secular school... first with no theologian facility
  103. University of Pennsylvania (1755)
    • founded by Ben Frankin
    • Liberalists
    • No religious Affiliation
  104. Reading of Almanas
    • an example of Enlightenment thinking in America
    • Poor Richard's Almanac by Ben Franklin (Richard Saunders)
  105. Cotton Mather suported the
    Small Pox innoculation, another example of Enlightenment thinking in America
  106. The Trial of John Peter Zinger (1735)
    • establishes the concept of Freedom of Press
    • Another example of Enlightenment Thinking
  107. Effects of the Glorious Revolution on the Colonies
    • Andros and the Dominion were overthrown
    • Massachusetts Bay and Plymouth were combined
    • Jacob Leisler overthrew captain Francis Nicholson (1689_ who had run New York as an annex to the Dominion
    • John Coode led a rebellion against Lord Baltimore and Maryland officials
    • - temporarily outlawed Catholicism untill the 5th Lord Baltimore joined the Anglican church in 1715
    • Colonies became less unified
    • More conflict with smaller local groups than with England
    • becoming a part of the imperial system
  108. Who were the Indentured Servants in Colonial America?
    • convicts and Volunteers
    • Many men and women came on 4 to 5 year contracts in oprder to recieve a passage to America, food and shelter, and tools, clothing, and land. However they were not equipped for life on their own
  109. Many Indentured Servants came due to the
    Headright System
  110. Many Servants found employment, but...
    most did not, this led to Bacons Rebellion
  111. The instability of Indentured servants led to
    African Slave labor
  112. Health in Colonial America was
    • bad a first but by the 1660slife expectancy was 71 - 72 if you survived infancy
    • however in the chesapeake region it was 40 - 41
    • there were many widows, widowers, and orphans
    • Patriarchal society was undermined due to high mortality rates
  113. illigetimate children were the result of
    premarital sex amoung indentured servants
  114. midwives helped to
    raise survival rates of mothers and infants
  115. Family structure in New England
    began to stabilize as death rate decreased
  116. Women's role in New England
    run the farm, they were a minority
  117. new england was dominated by
  118. In New Endland Children were
    more likely to survive
  119. Growth in Slave Trade
    • 11 million Africans were forced into immigration into North America, South America, and the Caribbeans
    • Untill the late 17th Century the rate of African Immigration was higher than that of Europeans
  120. Changing Nature of European Immigration
    • started with English, Natives, and Africans
    • in the 1700s population became more diverse
    • - less British Immigration
    • - More French Huguenots
    • - German Protestants (known as Pennsylvania Dutch)