Bio1 (1).txt

The flashcards below were created by user xjoellax on FreezingBlue Flashcards.

  1. Euglenoids
    • 1-4 flagella
    • Cell wall made of thib protein strip called pellicles wrap over cell membrane
    • Heterotrophic in absence of light
    • Have an eyespot that permits the abiliry to move in response to light (phototaxis)
    • Kingdom Protista. Domain Eukarya
  2. Dinoflagellates
    • Have 2 flagella.1 posterior and 2nd is transverse
    • Bioluminescent
    • Produce nerve toxins that concentrstr in fikter feeding shellfish which cause illness in humans when eaten
    • Kingdom protista.domain eukarya
  3. Diatoms
    • Have tests (shells)
    • Shell consists of silica (SiO2)
    • Kingdom protista.domain eukarya
  4. Brown algae
    • Multicellular and have flagellate sperm cells
    • Giant seaweed or kelp
    • Kingdom protista.domain eukarya
  5. Rhodophyta
    • Red algae
    • Contain phycobilins- red accessry pigment
    • Multicellular and their gametes do not have flagella
    • Kingdom protista.domain eukarya
  6. Chlorophyta
    • Green algae
    • Both chlorophyll a and b
    • Have cellulose cell wall
    • Store carbohydrates as starch
    • Isogamous-egg and sperm are motile and equal in size
    • Ansiogamous-sperm and eg differ in size
    • Oogamous-large egg remains with parent and fertilzed by a motile sperm
    • Believe to be ancestors of plants
    • Kingdom protista.domain eukarya
  7. Protozoa
    • Animal likd protists
    • Heterotrophs
    • Consume living things or dead organic matter
  8. Rhizopodia
    • Protozoa
    • Amoeba that move by extensions of their cell body called pseudopodia
    • Pseudopodia encircle food and absorb by phagocytosis
    • Kingdom protista.domain eukarya
  9. Foraminifera
    • Foram
    • Protozoa
    • Have tests made of calcium carbonate
    • Kingdom protista.domain eukarya
  10. Apicomplexans
    • Protozoa
    • Parasites of animals
    • Apical complex-conplex of organelles located at the end of the cell
    • No mean of motility
    • Form spores which are dispersed by one or more hosts thay participatr ib the completion of theit life cycles
    • Kingdom protista.domain eukarya
  11. Ciliates
    • Protozoa
    • Distinguished by their cilia which is used for moving
    • Have a mouth,anal pore,contractile vacuole,two nuclei, and other features
    • Kingdom protista.domain eukarya
    • Paramecium
  12. Fungus like
    Protisys that resemble fungi because they form either filaments or spore bearing bodies similar to the fungi
  13. Cellular slime mold
    • Both fungus like and protozoalike characteristics
    • Spores germinate into amoebas which feed on bacteria
    • When food source is depleted amoebas aggregate into a single unit which migrates into a slug. The cells then form a stalk woth a capsule at the top similar to spore bearing fungi.spores are released and then repeat the cycle when they germinate
    • Stimulus for aggregation is cAMP which is secreted by amoebas that experience food deprivation
    • Kingdom protista.domain eukarya
  14. Plasmodial slime mold
    • Fungus like
    • Grow as a single spreading mass feeding on vegetation
    • Food unavailable or when the environment dries up..stalks bearing capdules form
    • Haplod spores are released from the capsule germinate into haploid amoeboid or flagellated cells which fuse to form a diploid cell.
    • Kingdom protista.domain eukarya
  15. Oomycota
    • Fungus like.Water mold,downy mildee,white rust.Parasites or saprobes
    • Form filaments (hyphae) which secrete enzymes thay digest the surrounding substances. Lack septa or cross walls
    • Considered coenocytic which is containing manh nuclei within a single cell
    • Cell wall of oonmycota are made of cellulose
    • Kingdom protista.domain eukarya
  16. Kingdom Fungi
    • fungi grow as filaments called hyphae
    • a mass of hyphae is called mycelium
    • some fungi have septa or cross walls which divide the filament into compartments containing a single nucleus
    • when filaments lack septa, they are multinucleate or coenocytic
    • cell walls of fungi consist of chitin a nitrogen-containing polysaccharide
    • fungi are either parasites or saprobes, absorbing the breakdown products from the action of digestive enzymes that they secrete
    • parasitic hyphae called haustoria that penetrate host
  17. Plasmogamy
    • fusing of cells from two different fungi strains to produce a single cell with nuclei from both strains
    • a pair of haploid nuclei, one from each strain, is called a dikaryon
    • a hypha containing a dikaryon is called dikaryotic hypha
  18. Karyogamy
    fusing of the two haplod nuclei of a dikaryon to form a single diploid nucleus
  19. Meiosis
    • diploid nucleus restores the haploid condition
    • daughter cells develop into haploid spores, which germinate and form haploid hyphae
  20. Sexual reproduction of Fungi
    • 1.Plasmogamy
    • 2.Karyogamy
    • 3.Meiosis
  21. fungi asexual reproduction
    • fragmentation-breaking up of hyphae
    • budding-pinching off of a small hyphal outgrowth
    • asexual spores: Sporangiospores and Conidia
  22. Sporangiospores
    produce in saclike capsules called sporangia that are each borne on a stalk called sporangiophore
  23. Conidia
    • formed at the tips of specializzed hyphae not enclosed inside sacs
    • hyphae bearing conidia are called conidiophores
  24. zygomycota
    • lack septa except when filaments border reproductive filaments
    • reproduce sexually by fusion of hyphae from different strains followed by plasmogamy, karyogamy, meiosis
    • haploid zygospores are produced which germinate into new hyphae
    • ex. bread mold
  25. glomeromycota
    • lack septa but do not produce zygospores
    • they are a small group of fungi that occur only in mutualistic associations with roots of plants
    • fungus-root relationships, mycorrhizae, the plant provides carbohydrates to the fungus and the fungus increases the ability of the plant roots to absorb nutrients especially phosphorus
  26. ascomycota
    • have septa and reproduce sexually by producing haploid ascospores
    • after plasmogamy of hyphae from unlike strains a dikaryotic hypha produces more filaments by mitosis
    • karyogamy and meiosis subsequently occur in terminal hyphal cells producing four haploid cells
    • 4 cells divide by mitosis to produce 8 haploid ascospores in a sac called an ascus
    • asci are grouped together into a specialized fruiting boy the ascocarp
    • ex. yeasts, powdry mildews, and truffles
  27. basidiomycota
    • have septa and reproduce sexually by producing haploid basidiospores
    • plasmogamy between two unlike hyphae is followed by mitosis and the growth of dikaryotic hyphae to form a fruiting body called a basidiocap
    • karyogamy occus in terminal hyphal cells called basidia followed by meiosis and production of 4 haploid basidiospores
    • ex. mushroom
    • Kingdom Fungi
  28. Deuteromycota
    • imperfect fungi
    • an artificial group comprising fungi for which no sexual reproductive cycle
    • Penicillium
  29. Lichens
    • mutualistic association between fungi and algae
    • algae which is usually chlorophyta or cyanobacteria provides sugar from photosynthesis
    • nitrogen compounds are also provided if the algae is nitrogen fixing
    • fungi produce pigments that shield algae from UV radiation or excess light, or toxic substances that discourage algae consumption by grazers
Author
ID
35941
Card Set
Bio1 (1).txt
Description
bio1
Updated
Show Answers