DH theory

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sthomp88
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35942
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DH theory
Updated:
2010-12-14 15:40:29
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Chapter two
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  1. an artificially generated collection of particles suspended in air
    aerosol
  2. suspension of particles in the air that consists partially or wholly of microorganisms; it may be capable of causing an infection.
    microbial aerosol
  3. diminished reactivity to specific antigens; inability to react to skin test antigen (even if person is infected with the organism tested) because of immunosuppression.
    anergy
  4. a soluble protein molecule produced and secreted by body cells in response to an antigen; it is capable of binding to that specific antigen.
    antibody
  5. a substance that is capable under appropriate conditions, of inducing a specific immune response and of reacting with the products of that response, that is, with the specific antibody.
    antigen
  6. a person who harbors a specific infectious agent in the absence of discernable clinical disease and serves as potential source of infection. The carrier state may be temporary, transient, or chronic
    carrier
  7. an individual who harbors pathogenic organisms without clinically recognizable symptoms; a carrier may infect those they contact
    asymptomatic carrier
  8. United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Prevention, Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health service
    CDCP
  9. Colony forming unit
    CFU
  10. the time during which an infectious agent may be transferred directly or indirectly from an infected person to another person; the communicable period may include or overlap the incubation period.
    communicable period of a disease
  11. diminutive drop, such as the paricles of moisture expelled while coughing, sneezing, or speaking, that may carry infectious agents
    droplet
  12. an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; a laboratory test to detect antibody within the blood serum
    ELISA or EIA
  13. a laboratory test for antibody that is more specific than EIA and is used to validate seropositive reactions to the EIA
    western blot (WB)
  14. the constant presence of a disease or infectious agent within a geographic area.
    endemic
  15. widespread occurrence of cases of an illness in a community or region; greater than the expected number or cases for the particular population
    epidemic
  16. a inanimate object or material on which disease-producin agents (microorganisms) may be conveyed
    fomite or fomes
  17. healthcare personnel; DHCP: dental healthcare personnel
    HCP
  18. an infection associated with or acquired during a medical or surgical intervention; replaces nosocomial, which is limited to an adverse infectious outcome occurring in a hospital
    healthcare-associated infection
  19. the resistance that a person has against disease; it may be natural or acquired
    immunity
  20. short-duration immunity either naturally attained by transplacental transfer from the mother or artificially acquired by inoculation of specific protective antibodies
    passive immunity
  21. immunity either naturally attained by infection, with or without clinical manifestations, or artificially acquired by inoculation of the afent in a killed modified, or variant form; in response, the body produces its own antibodies; usually lasts for years
    active immunity
  22. the time interval between the initial contact with an infectious agent and the appearance of the first clinical sign or symptom of the disease.
    incubation period
  23. a state caused by the invasion, development, or multiplication of an infectious agent into the body
    infection
  24. first time; no preexisting antibodies
    primary infection
  25. persistent infection following a primary infection in which the causative agent remains inactive within certain cells
    latent infection
  26. symptomatic reactivation of a latent infection
    recurrent infection
  27. organism capable of producing an infection
    infectious agent
  28. yellowness of skin, sclerae, mucous membranes, and excretions due to hyperbilirubinemia and deposition of bile pigments. aslo called icterus
    jaundice
  29. the microscopic living organisms of a region
    microbiota
  30. widespread epidemic usually affecting the population of an extensive region, several countries, or intravenous
    pandemic
  31. injection by a route other than the alimentary tract, suh as subcutaneous, intramuscular, or intravenous
    parenteral
  32. inflammation of the parotid gland
    parotitis
  33. a virus, mocroorganism, or other substance that causes disease
    pathogen
  34. capable of causing disease only when the host's resistane is lowered
    opportunistic pathogen
  35. by way of, or through, the skin
    percutaneous
  36. by way of, or through, a mucous membrane.
    permucosal
  37. protein particle lacking nucleic acid that has been implicated as the cause of certain neruodegenerative diseases; an example is Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease.
    prion
  38. early or premonitory symptom
    prodrome/prodromal
  39. process by which viruses reproduce and multiply
    replication
  40. virus with RNA as its core genetic material; requires the enzyme reverse transcriptase to convert its RNA to proviral DNA
    Retrovirus
  41. the identification of a disease by serum markers of that specific condition
    serologic diagnosis
  42. after exposure to the etiologc agent of a disease, the blood changes from negative (seronegative) to positive (seropositive) for the serum marker for that disease; the time interval for conversion is specific for each disease
    seroconversion
  43. a spcific finding (such as antibody or antigen) by laboratory blood analysis that identifies an existing disease state.
    serum marker
  44. presence of virus in body secretions, in excretions, or in body surface lesions with potential for transmission.
    shedding (viral)
  45. an approach to infection control to protect DHCP and patients from pathogens that can be spread by blood or any other bdy fluid, secretion, or excretion (except sweat), regardless of whether they contain blood.
    standard precautions
  46. sexually transmitted disease
    STD
  47. continuing scrutiny of all aspects of occurrence and spread of a diseae that are pertinent to effective control
    surveillance (of disease)
  48. host not possesing resistance against an infectious agent
    susceptible host
  49. passage of an infectious afent from one individual to another
    transmission (horizontal)
  50. passage of an infectious agent from one generation to another by breast milk or across the placenta
    vertical transmission
  51. an approach to infection control in which all human blood and certain human bodted as if known to be infectious for HIV, HBV, and other blood-borne pathogens
    universal precautions
  52. a carrier that transfers an infectious microorganism from one host to another
    vector
  53. an arthropod, insect, or other living carrier in whose body the infecting organism multiplies before becoming infective to the recipient
    biologic vector
  54. a substanc or object that serves as an intermediate means by which an infectious agent is transported and introduced into a susceptible host through a suitable portal of entry
    vehicle
  55. complete virus particle made up of the nucleoid (the genetic material) and capsid (the shell of protein that protects the nucleoid).
    virion
  56. the degree of pathogenicity or disease-evoking power of an infectious agent.
    virulence
  57. a subcellular genetic entity capable of gaining entrance into a limited range of living cells and capable of replication only within such cells; it contains either DNA or RNA, but not both.
    virus
  58. the time between exposure resulting in infection and the presence of detectable serum antibody; antibody test is negative but infectious agent is transmissible during the window period.
    window period

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