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what are the objectives of preventing transmissible disease?
- protect patients and dental personnel
- maintain healthy facilities
- keep organized systems
- prevent cross contamination
what contacts do standard precautions apply to?
- body fluids (except sweat)
- nonintact skin
- mucous membrane
what are 3 other precautions that must be taken in applying standard precautions?
- trasmission based (flu, tb, varicella_
- airborne transmission
- transmission through skin contact
in the utero, the oral cavity is__________.
how are microorganisms transferred from the mother to the babies oral cavity?
true or false. as an infant grows, there is continuing introduction of microorganisms normal for an adult oral cavity.
where does the salivary bacteria come from?
- dorsum of tongue
- mucous membranes
- gingival/periodontal tissues
name 3 areas of the oral cavity that high counts of microorganisms are found
- dental biofilm
- periodontal pockets
- carious lesions
true or false. the intact mucous membrane of the oral cavity protects against infections to a degree.
name the 6 essential links for spreading infections
- infectious agent
- port of exit
- mode of transportation
- port of entry
- susceptible host
- invading organism
- where the invading organism lives and multiplies
- water (from tubing)
port of exit
- mode of escape from the reservoir
- saliva, blood
- skin and mucous membrane
- direct contact
- indirect contact
- fomite, vector
port of entry
- mode of entry of the infectious agent into the new host
- mucous membrane
- GI tract
- respiratory tract
- broken skin
- does not have immunity to invading infection
- medically comprimised
Name 7 factors that influence the development of infection
- presence of infectious agent
- number of organisms
- duration of exposure
- virulance of organism
- immune status of the host
- general physical health of the host
- nutritional status of the host
name 4 factors that would alter the bodies normal defenses against infection
- abnormal physical conditions, such as a defective heart valve
- systematic diseases
- drug therapy
- prostheses and transplants
How can dust borne organisms/airborne particles infect someone?
- the opening and closing of doors sends airborne particles flying
- large airborne particles
- can contaminate dental instruments
- controlled with surface disinfection
what size are true aerosol particles?
less than 50 micrometers, but most are less than 5
describe 3 characteristics of aerosols
- can be solid or liquid
- can be invisible or visible
- can be suspended in the air for long periods of time
- greater than 50 micrometers in size
- heavier particles for short durations of time
- occurs on objects, floors, and people
- it is visible, especially after it lands
How are aerosols and spatter created?
- during breathing, speaking, coughing, and sneezing
- during intraoral procedures
- from handpieces, ultrasonic
true or false, aerosols travel with air currents?
what does prevention of transmission depend on?
- elimination or limitation of organisms
- interruption of transmission (disinfection-break the chain)
- protecion of susceptible host (PPE)
what are 2 pre procedural methods for prevention of transmission?
- biofilm removal-polish first
- antiseptic mouth rinse
name 5 ways to interrupt transmition
- use rubber dam
- use HVE
- manual instrumentation (no ultrasonic)
- adequate ventilation
state the protocal for keeping the water clean
- follow EPA standards for drinking water
- run water through water lines
- 2 min at the start and end of day
- 30 seconds between pt.s
what is used during intraoral procedures to prevent transmission to the hygienist? And the pt?
- PPE, masks, sheilds, eyewear
- protective eyewear