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What are the Auxiliary verbs/ Linking verbs?
- is, am, are, was, were
- be, being, been
- has, have, had
- do, does, did
- shall, will should, would
- may, might must
- can, could
What are the five tyes of verbs?
- To be: you, we, they are- he/she/it is- I am
- To look/appear: i, you, look/appear- he/she/it looks/appearsTo seem:I, you seemTo become:I, you becomeTo feel:I, you feel
What is a verb?
The part of speech that shows existence, action, or occurrence in most languages.
What is the verb in this sentence?
Dracula bites his victums on the neck.
We run away from Julia because she is it.
I like to skip, it is very fun.
- Dracula bites his victums on the neck.
- We run away from Julia because she is it.
- I like to skip, it is very fun.
What is an Abverb and what does it do?
- The part of speech that describes or gives information (modifies) about a verb, adjective, or other adverb.
- Usually ends -ly, functions as modifiers of verbs or clauses, and also as modifiers of adjectives or other adverbs or adverbial phrases. Adverbs typically answer the question how? when? and where?
They danced gracefully. They danced how?
She turned suddenly. She turned when?
The children played outside. The children played where?
Where can you find adverbs in a sentence?
Before the verb, after the verb, or even before the subject at the beginning of a sentence. Example:
- Slowly she turned. (At the beginning of the sentence)
- She slowly turned. (Before the verb)
- She turned slowly. (After the verb)
- Adverbs may even split the parts of a verb phrase:
- She had slowly been turning.
- She had been slowly turning.
What kind of words split a verb phrase?
not never only just already
almost often usually sometimes
Place the adverb somewhere else:
Selma never had seen an elephant.
Kids were playing outside.
Davy tiptoed quietly toward the door.
- Never had Selma seen an elephant.
- Kids were outside playing.
- Davy quietly tiptoed toward the door.
What type of words are adverbs often formed from and how? Examples? What are they called? Rules?
Adjectives, by adding an ly to the end you get an adverb.
- Adjectives Adverbs They were quiet. They worked quietly. He is a careful listener. He listened carefully.
Many adverbs that end in ly are called adverbs of manner
. That is they answer the question how? about he verb:Maggie walked slowly
up the staris. How did she walk? Slowly
So if you see a word that ends in ly and it answers the question how? It's an adverb. And if the abjective ends in y- change the y to an i and then add ly.
WARNING:not all words that end in ly are adverbs. here are some that are not:Silly, Holy, Oily, Lonely
What are the jobs of conjunctions?
They join together elements of thought:words, phrases, and clauses.
What are Coordinating Conjunctions? Examples?
They are the simplest kind, and they show equality of relatinship between ideas they join. There are only seven of them, and they are easy to remember by the acronym FANBOYS. A coordinating conjunctionshould always be preceded by a comma.
- Coordinating Conjunctions:For, And, Nor, But, Or, Yet, So
- Please pick me up after school, or i will have to take the bus home.
- The train was late, and Tom was tired.
- Jane had a torn hamstring, yet she still ran the marathon.
What do Coordinating Conjunctions do?
They join two ideas of the same importance.
What are Subordinating Conjunctions?
They allow writers to show which idea is more and which is less important. The idea in the main clause is the more important ( it can stand on its own, so we call it an 'independent clause'), while the idea un the subordinate clause (made subordinate by the subordinating conjunction; it cannot stand alone and so we call it a 'dependent clause') is less important. The subordinate clause supplies a time, reason, condition, and so on for the main clause. If the dependent clause appears at the beginning of the sentence, it should be followed by a comma.
What are the most common Subordinating Conjunctions?
- Time:after, before, since, when, whenever, while, until, as
- Reason:because, since, so that, in order, that, why
- Concession:although, though, even though, while
- Place:where, wherever
- Condition:if, unless, until, in case, provided that, assuming that, even if
- Manner:as if, as, though, how
- Sally steamed the corn while Fred fried the steaks.
- After the rain stopped, the dog ran into the mud to play.
- The snowman melted because the sun came out.
What are correlative conjunctions?
- They are paired coordinating conjuctions.
- Both... And Not Only... But (Also)
- Either... Or Whether... Or
- Neither... Nor
What do adjectives do? What questions do they answer? Below are adjectives that answer these questions.
- They describe or give information about nouns. They answer the the question 'What kind of?' or'How much?' or 'How many?'
- One apple Many flowersFive pounds Some foodBoth parents Several days
What is a Predicate Adjective? Examples?
Is when the adjective is not
placed next to the noun it modifies. Instead is comes after the auxiliary verb/ linking verb. The linking verb links the adjective with the subject of the sentence. Predicate adjectives are subject complements.
- The school is clean. (Clean modifies school)
- The flowers smell fragrant. (Fragrant modifies flowers)
- WARNING:not every adjective after a linking verb is a predicate adjective. Notice the difference between these two sentences:
- 1. Tigers are powerful.
- 2. Tigers are powerful animals.
- Sentence 1 is correct because sentence two powerful modifies animal instead of the subject tigers.
What are articles? what are the two kinds?
- The, an, a. Definate and indefinate. The is a definate article because it names a particular thing. But a and an are indefinate articles because they do not define a particular noun instead they name any member of a group or thing.
- An is only used when a cant be. A cant be used when the next word starts with a vowel (a, e, i, o, u) or when the next word starts with an h when the h is silent.
What are the three types of words that can be both pronouns and adjectives?
- Demonstratives:this that these those
- Indefinates:some many all any most each both few either neither more much several etc.
- Interrogatives:which what whose (But not who or whom)
- and there is one more that is ALWAYS used like an adjective to modify nouns:
- Possessive:my your his her its our their
- only the possesives listed above can be used as adjectves.
- I want some orange juice- adj.
- I want some.- pro.
- The other bottle is open- adj.
- The other is open- pro.
Where are pronouns used as adjective found?
They are always found before the noun because they modify the noun that comes after them. They are never used as predicate adjectives.
Other then pronouns what form of grammar can adjectives be used as? How?
Nouns, the noun answers the question what kind. Possesive nouns also modify other possesive nouns.
What are comparative degree adjectives?
They are words that compare two persons, places, or things, or three. They end in er.
What are the words called that end in est? What word comes before est ending words?
Superlative degree. The.
Unlike comparative or superlative adjectives, positive adjectives do what?
They do not compare two things.
What is a prepositional phrase?
a phrase modifying a word that starts with a preposition.
What does every prepositional phrase have to contain?
a noun or pronoun of some sort.
What question do many prepositions answer?
What are the 45 most common prepositions?
- about, above, across, after, against, along, among, around, at
- before, behind, below, beneath, beside, between, beyond, by, down
- ring, except, for, from, in, inside, into, like, near
- of, off, on, onto, out, outside, over, through, to
- toward, under, underneath, until, up, upon, with, within, without
What is the object of the preposition?
It is the noun or pronoun that ends the perpositional phrase. It can be a noun or a personal pronoun, either way it is still the object of the preposition. (Personal Pronoun is me, him, her, us, them, etc.)