Wallace's Greek - Adjectives 1

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Wallace's Greek - Adjectives 1
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  1. The Basic Role of the Adjective
    • 1. The adjective is a modifier of a noun or other substantive
    • 2. It can be modified by an adverb.
    • 3. However, it deviates from this role:
    • a) it can either stand in the place of a noun or in the place of an adverb
    • b) its nominal role is a natural extension of the adjective in which the noun is elided
    • c) its adverbial role is more idiomatic, usually reserved for special terms

    • Substantival --> Independent
    • Adjectival --> Dependent on Noun
    • Adverbial --> Dependent on Adjective or Verb

    Daniel B. Wallace, Greek Grammar Beyond the Basics - Exegetical Syntax of the New Testament ( (Zondervan Publishing House and Galaxie Software, 1999; 2002)), 292.
  2. The Adverbial Use of the Adjective
    • 1) The adjective is sometimes used in the place of an adverb. Such as “I am doing good,” or “Come here quick!”
    • 2) Other instances involve idiomatic uses of the adjective, such as the accusative adjective in the neuter used adverbially. This idiomatic adverbial use is frequently articular. These include a large group of stereotyped terms, such as βραχύ, λοιπόν, μίκρον, μόνον, πολύ, πρῶτον, ὕστερον, κτλ.

    • Illustrations
    • Matt 6:33
    • ζητεῖτε δὲ πρῶτον τὴν βασιλείαν τοῦ θεοῦ
    • but seek first the kingdom of God

    • John 1:41
    • εὑρίσκει οὗτος πρῶτον τὸν ἀδελφὸν τὸν ἴδιον Σίμωνα
    • he first found his own brother, Simon

    • John 4:18
    • πέντε ἄνδρας ἔσχες καὶ νῦν ὃν ἔχεις οὐκ ἔστιν σου ἀνήρ· τοῦτο ἀληθὲς εἴρηκας
    • You have had five husbands and the one whom you now have is not your husband; this you have spoken truly.

    • John 10:10
    • ἐγὼ ἦλθον ἵνα ζωὴν ἔχωσιν καὶ περισσὸν ἔχωσιν
    • I have come that they might have life and that they might have it abundantly

    Daniel B. Wallace, Greek Grammar Beyond the Basics - Exegetical Syntax of the New Testament ( (Zondervan Publishing House and Galaxie Software, 1999; 2002)), 293.
  3. The Independent or Substantival Use of the Adjective
    • 1) The adjective is frequently used independently of a noun. That is, it can function as a substantive (in which case it either implies a noun or takes on the lexical nuance of a noun).
    • 2) Usually, though not always, such a substantival adjective will have the article with it to point out that its use is indeed substantival.
    • 3) Some words, such as κύριος (“lord”), ἔρημος (“desert”), διάβολος (“slanderous,” or, as a noun, “the devil”), and ἅγιος (“holy,” or, as a noun, “saint”), often function as substantives without the article since they are either often or usually independent of nouns in the NT.
    • 4) Other adjectives, however, usually require the article to make clear that they are being used substantivally.
    • 5) When the adjective is substantival, its gender is generally fixed by sense rather than by grammatical concord.That is to say, if it refers to a male, it will usually be masculine; if it refers to a female, it will usually be feminine; if it refers to an entity or concept, it will be neuter.

    • Illustrations
    • Matt 6:13
    • ῥῦσαι ἡμᾶς ἀπὸ τοῦ πονηροῦ
    • deliver us from the evil [one]

    • Matt 13:17
    • πολλοὶ προφῆται καὶ δίκαιοι
    • many prophets and righteous [men]
    • In this text there is no article, but δίκαιοι clearly should be taken substantivally. This is probably due to the fact that since πολλοί is a pronominal adj. the article is not required.

    • Luke 6:45
    • ὁ ἀγαθὸς ἄνθρωπος ἐκ τοῦ ἀγαθοῦ θησαυροῦ τῆς καρδίας προφέρει τὸ ἀγαθόν, καὶ ὁ πονηρὸς ἐκ τοῦ πονηροῦ προφέρει τὸ πονηρόν5
    • the good man out of the good treasure of his heart brings forth the good, and the evil [man] out of the evil [treasure of his heart] brings forth the evil

    • Acts 2:33
    • τῇ δεξιᾷ τοῦ θεοῦ ὑψωθείς
    • having been exalted at the right [hand] of God


    • 2 Cor 6:15
    • τίς μερὶς πιστῷ μετὰ ἀπίστου;
    • What portion does a believer have with an unbeliever?

    Daniel B. Wallace, Greek Grammar Beyond the Basics - Exegetical Syntax of the New Testament ( (Zondervan Publishing House and Galaxie Software, 1999; 2002)), 294.
  4. What is the basic role of the adjective?
    1.Normal Usage

    Normally, the positive adjective makes no comment about any other object than the one that it modifies (or, if a predicate adjective, the object it makes an assertion about).

    • It simply qualifies the noun to which it stands related (e.g., “a good man” does not indicate that this particular man is better [the comparative idea] than other men). This usage is routine.
    • Acts 27:14
    • ἄνεμος τυφωνικός
    • a violent wind

    • Rom 7:12
    • ἡ ἐντολὴ ἁγία καὶ δικαία καὶ ἀγαθή
    • the commandment is holy and righteous and good


    • 2. Positive for Comparative
    • On a rare occasion, the positive adjective can be used for the comparative.

    • Matt 18:8
    • καλόν σοί ἐστιν εἰσελθεῖν εἰς τὴν ζωὴν κυλλόν
    • it is better to enter life crippled
    • Here, ἤ is used later in the sentence to indicate comparison. Obviously, the idea of the positive adj. is insufficient, i.e., it is not good in and of itself to enter life crippled!



    • 1 Cor 10:33
    • μὴ ζητῶν τὸ ἐμαυτοῦ σύμφορον ἀλλὰ τὸ τῶν πολλῶν
    • not seeking my own advantage, but that of the majority

    • 3. Positive for Superlative
    • Occasionally, the positive adjective is used in the place of a superlative adjective.
    • When the positive adjective is in the attributive position and is used with the par excellence article, it has the force of the superlative adjective.
    • Rarely, a predicate adjective also functions as a superlative.

    • Matt 22:38
    • αὕτη ἐστῖν ἡ μεγάλη καὶ πρώτη ἐντολή
    • this is the great [=greatest] and first commandment

    • Luke 9:48
    • ὁ μικρότερος ἐν πᾶσιν ὑμῖν … ἐστιν μέγας
    • the least among you all … is greatest


    • Luke 10:42
    • Μαριὰμ τὴν ἀγαθὴν μερίδα ἐξελέξατο
    • Mary has chosen the good [=best] part


    Daniel B. Wallace, Greek Grammar Beyond the Basics - Exegetical Syntax of the New Testament ( (Zondervan Publishing House and Galaxie Software, 1999; 2002)), 297.
  5. The Use of the Comparative Adjective
    • 1. Normal Usage
    • The comparative adjective normally makes a comparison.

    The largest group of instances involves an explicit comparison in which the adjective is followed by a genitive of comparison or the particle ἤ or, less frequently, by παρά or ὑπέρ.

    But the comparative adjective not infrequently is used substantivally, often leaving the comparison implicit.

    • Matt 12:6
    • λέγω ὑμῖν ὅτι τοῦ ἱεροῦ μεῖζόν ἐστιν ὧδε
    • I tell you, [something] greater than the temple is here

    • Mark 10:25
    • εὐκοπώτερον ἐστιν κάμηλον διὰ τῆς τρυμαλιᾶς τῆς ῥαφίδος διελθεῖν ἢ πλούσιον εἰς τὴν βασιλείαν τοῦ θεοῦ εἰσελθεῖν
    • it is easier for a camel to enter the eye of a needle than for a rich man to enter the kingdom of God

    • Heb 4:12
    • ζῶν ὁ λόγος τοῦ θεοῦ καὶ ἐνεργὴς καὶ τομώτερος ὑπὲρ πᾶσαν μάχαιραν δίστομον
    • the word of God is living and active and sharper than any two-edged sword

    • 2. Comparative for Superlative
    • Although relatively rare, the comparative adjective can be used with a superlative sense.

    • Luke 9:48
    • ὁ μικρότερος ἐν πᾶσιν ὑμῖν … ἐστιν μέγας
    • the least among you all … is greatest
    • (Notice too that the positive form μέγας is used in a superlative sense)


    • 1 Tim 4:1
    • ἐν ὑστέροις καιροῖς ἀποστήσονται τινες τῆς πίστεως
    • in the last times some will depart from the faith

    • 1 Cor 13:13
    • νυνὶ δὲ μένει πίστις, ἐλπίς, ἀγάπη, τὰ τρία ταῦτα· μείζων δὲ τούτων ἡ ἀγάπη
    • But now remain faith, hope, love, these three. And the greatest of these is love
    • (It is sometimes disputed that μείζων is functioning in a superlative manner here).

    • 3. Comparative for Elative
    • Sometimes the comparative adjective is used with an elative sense. That is, the quality expressed by the adjective is intensified, but is not making a comparison (e.g., ὁ ἰσχυρότερος ἀνήρ might mean “the very strong man” rather than “the stronger man”).
    • The elative sense in classical Greek was normally reserved for the superlative form, but in Koine the comparative has encroached on the superlative’s domain.

    • Acts 13:31
    • ὃς ὤφθη ἐπὶ ἡμέρας πλείους
    • who appeared for very many days

    Daniel B. Wallace, Greek Grammar Beyond the Basics - Exegetical Syntax of the New Testament ( (Zondervan Publishing House and Galaxie Software, 1999; 2002)), 298.
  6. The Use of the Superlative Adjective
    • 1. “Normal” Usage
    • In Hellenistic Greek, the true superlative sense for the superlative adjective is on its way out. Thus the superlative sense for the superlative adjective is “normal” more in name than in reality. Although it is more frequent than other uses, the margin is negligible.

    This “normal” usage is due largely to the instances of πρῶτος and ἔσχατος, which together account for most of the superlative forms in the NT. Apart from these two terms, approximately half of the superlative forms in the NT function as superlatives.22

    • John 11:24
    • ἀναστήσεται ἐν τῇ ἀναστάσει ἐν τῇ ἐσχάτῃ ἡμέρᾳ
    • he will rise again in the resurrection on the last day

    • Acts 16:17
    • οὗτοι οἱ ἄνθρωποι δοῦλοι τοῦ θεοῦ τοῦ ὑψίστου εἰσίν
    • these men are servants of the most high God

    • 1 Cor 15:9
    • ἐγὼ εἰμι ὁ ἐλάχιστος τῶν ἀποστόλων
    • I am the least of the apostles


    • 2. Superlative for Elative
    • Apart from πρῶτος and ἔσχατος, the superlative is used about as frequently for the elative as it is for the superlative.

    • Mark 4:1
    • συνάγεται πρὸς αὐτὸν ὄχλος πλεῖστος
    • a very great crowd gathered before him

    • Luke 1:3
    • κράτιστε Θεόφιλε
    • most excellent Theophilus

    • 1 Cor 4:3
    • ἐμοὶ εἰς ἐλάχιστόν ἐστιν, ἵνα ὑφ ̓ ὑμῶν ἀνακριθῶ
    • to me, it is a very small thing that I should be judged by you

    • 3. Superlative for Comparative
    • The superlative has the same sense as the comparative in that it compares only two things rather than three or more.
    • This is frequent with πρῶτος (although it normally has a superlative force), rare with ἔσχατος, and nonexistent with other superlative forms.

    • Matt 21:28
    • ἄνθρωπος εἶχεν τέκνα δύο. καὶ προσελθὼν τῷ πρώτῳ εἶπεν …
    • a man had two sons. He came to the first and said …

    • John 20:4
    • ὁ ἄλλος μαθητὴς … ἧλθεν πρῶτος εἰς τὸ μνημεῖον
    • the other disciple came first to the tomb

    Daniel B. Wallace, Greek Grammar Beyond the Basics - Exegetical Syntax of the New Testament ( (Zondervan Publishing House and Galaxie Software, 1999; 2002)), 303.
  7. When the Article Is Present - The Attributive Positions
    • First Attributive Position
    • The first attributive position is article-adjective-noun (e.g., ὁ ἀγαθὸς βασιλεύς = the good king).

    In this construction “the adjective receives greater emphasis than the substantive.”

    This usage is quite common.

    • Matt 4:5
    • τὴν ἁγίαν πόλιν
    • the holy city

    • Luke 6:45
    • ὁ ἀγαθὸς ἄνθρωπος
    • the good man

    • Phil 3:2
    • βλέπετε τοὺς κακοὺς ἐργάτας
    • watch out for the evil workers

    • 1 John 4:18
    • ἡ τελεία ἀγάπη ἔξω βάλλει τὸν φόβον
    • perfect love casts out fear

    • Second Attributive Position
    • The second attributive position is article-noun-article-adjective (e.g., ὁ βασιλεὺς ὁ ἀγαθός = the good king).
    • This difference in the placement of the adjective is not one of relation, but of position and emphasis.

    In the second attributive position “both substantive and adjective receive emphasis and the adjective is added as a sort of climax in apposition with a separate article.”

    A literal, though awkward, gloss, bringing out the force of such a construction of ὁ βασιλεὺς ὁ ἀγαθός, is “the king, the good one.” This construction occurs frequently.

    • Matt 5:29
    • εἰ ὁ ὀφθαλμός σου ὁ δεξιὸς σκανδαλίζει σε
    • if your right eye causes you to stumble

    • Acts 11:15
    • ἐπέπεσεν τὸ πνεῦμα τὸ ἅγιον ἐπ ̓ αὐτούς
    • the Holy Spirit fell on them

    • Heb 6:4
    • γευσαμένους τῆς δωρεᾶς τῆς ἐπουρανίου
    • having tasted the heavenly gift

    • Rev 19:2
    • ἔκρινεν τὴν πόρνην τὴν μεγάλην
    • he has judged the great harlot

    • Third Attributive Position
    • The third attributive position is noun-article-adjective (e.g., βασιλεὺς ὁ ἀγαθός = the good king). “Here the substantive is [often] indefinite and general, while the attribute [adjective] makes a particular application.”
    • To bring out the force of such a construction one might translate βασιλεὺς ὁ ἀγαθός as “a king, the good one.” This is the least frequent of the attributive positions, occurring only a few times with adjectives.

    • Luke 15:22
    • ταχὺ ἐξενέγκατε στολὴν τὴν πρώτην
    • quickly bring out the best robe
    • (The idea is “bring out a robe-the best one.”)

    • John 1:18
    • μονογενὴς θεὸς ὁ ὢν εἰς τὸν κόλπον τοῦ πατρός
    • the unique God who was near the heart of the Father

    [More frequent than the adj. in third attributive positions is the participle. When a participle is used, the article should normally be translated like a relative pronoun.]

    Daniel B. Wallace, Greek Grammar Beyond the Basics - Exegetical Syntax of the New Testament ( (Zondervan Publishing House and Galaxie Software, 1999; 2002)), 306.
  8. When the Article Is Present - The Predicate Positions
    • First Predicate Position
    • The first predicate position is adjective-article-noun (e.g., ἀγαθὸς ὁ βασιλεύς = the king is good).

    Here, the adjective seems to be slightly more emphatic than the noun. Thus, to bring out the force of such a construction, one might translate ἀγαθὸς ὁ βασιλεύς as “good is the king.” This usage is relatively common.

    • Matt 5:9
    • μακάριοι οἱ εἰρηνοποιοί
    • blessed are the peacemakers

    • Mark 9:50
    • καλὸν τὸ ἅλας
    • salt is good

    • 2 Cor 1:18
    • πιστὸς ὁ θεός
    • God is faithful

    • 1 John 3:10
    • ἐν τούτῳ φανερά ἐστιν τὰ τέκνα τοῦ θεοῦ
    • in this the children of God are manifest

    • Second Predicate Position
    • The second predicate position is article-noun-adjective (e.g., ὁ βασιλεὺς ἀγαθός = the king is good).

    Here, the emphasis seems to be either equally placed on both noun and adjective or is slightly heavier on the noun. This usage is relatively common.

    • John 3:33
    • ὁ θεὸς ἀληθής ἐστιν
    • God is true

    • Rom 12:9
    • ἡ ἀγάπη ἀνυπόκριτος
    • [Let] love be without hypocrisy

    • Jas 2:26
    • ἡ πίστις χωρὶς ἔργων νεκρά ἐστιν
    • faith without works is dead

    • 1 Pet 2:12
    • τὴν ἀναστροφὴν ὑμῶν ἐν τοῖς ἔθνεσιν ἔχοντες καλήν
    • keep your conduct among the Gentiles good
    • (The predicate adj. in this instance is also the complement of an object-complement construction.)

    Daniel B. Wallace, Greek Grammar Beyond the Basics - Exegetical Syntax of the New Testament ( (Zondervan Publishing House and Galaxie Software, 1999; 2002)), 307.
  9. Summary of Adjectives when the article is present
    When the article is present, the relation of adjective to noun is easy to determine.

    When the adjective is within the article-noun group (i.e., when it has an article immediately before it), it is attributive to the noun and hence modifies or qualifies the noun in some way.

    When the adjective is outside the article-noun group, it is predicate to the noun and hence makes an assertion about it.

    The only exception to these rules when the article is present is with pronominal adjectives (i.e., words that function sometimes as adjectives and sometimes as pronouns, such as πᾶς, ὅλος).

    These may stand in a predicate position but have an attributive relation to the noun.

    Other than with pronominal adjectives, then, when the article is present, the adjective’s (structural) position to the noun will determine and be the same as its (semantic) relation to the noun.

    Daniel B. Wallace, Greek Grammar Beyond the Basics - Exegetical Syntax of the New Testament ( (Zondervan Publishing House and Galaxie Software, 1999; 2002)), 307.
  10. Adjectives When the Article Is Absent
    When no article is present, the relation of adjective to noun is more difficult to ascertain.

    This type of construction occurs almost 2400 times in the NT, over one fourth of all adjective-noun constructions.

    Conceivably, the anarthrous adjective-noun construction could express either an attributive or predicate relation. For example, βασιλεὺς ἀγαθός could mean either “a good king” or “a king is good.”

    However, there are some rules of thumb to follow:

    The general rule is that in nonequative clauses (i.e., a clause that does not primarily make an assertion about the subject), an anarthrous adjective related to an anarthrous noun is normally attributive (cf., e.g., 1 Cor 3:10; 2 John 1; Jude 6; Rev 3:3). There are some exceptions, however (cf. e.g., Heb 6:18; 10:4; Jude 14).

    • In equative clauses (i.e., a clause that primarily makes an assertion about the subject, the general rule is that an anarthrous adjective related to an anarthrous noun is normally predicate.
    • This is especially true when the order is noun-adjective. For the predicate relations, cf., e.g., 1 Cor 12:17; Rom 7:8; Heb 9:17; Jas 1:12. The example in Rom 7:8 is most illustrative: ἁμαρτία νεκρά (“sin is dead”). But the attributive relation also occurs, not as frequently (cf., e.g., Matt 7:15; Luke 5:8; Eph 6:2; Heb 12:11; 1 John 2:18).

    Daniel B. Wallace, Greek Grammar Beyond the Basics - Exegetical Syntax of the New Testament ( (Zondervan Publishing House and Galaxie Software, 1999; 2002)), 309.
  11. The Anarthrous Adjective-Noun Construction:
    First Attributive & First Predicate
    Rather than treat attributive and predicate positions separately, both will be dealt with under the same structural heading. The reason for this is that only when the article is present will the structure dictate the semantics. In the anarthrous construction, since the article is absent, the position of the adjective does not determine its relation to the noun.

    • (Anarthrous) First Attributive Position
    • When it has been determined from the context that an adjective in an adjective-noun construction expresses an attributive relation to the noun, it is in the first (anarthrous) attributive position (e.g., ἀγαθὸς βασιλεύς = a good king). This is common enough, occurring hundreds of times in the NT.

    • Luke 19:17
    • εὖγε, ἀγαθὲ δοῦλε
    • well done, good servant

    • 1 Cor 3:10
    • ὡς σοφὸς ἀρχιτέκτων θεμέλιον ἔθηκα
    • as a wise master builder, I laid a foundation

    • 2 Pet 1:19 ͅ
    • ὡς λύχνῳ φαίνοντι ἐν αὐχμηρῷ τόπω
    • like a lamp shining in a dark place

    • (Anarthrous) First Predicate Position
    • When the same construction has been determined from the context to express a predicate relation, the adjective is in the first (anarthrous) predicate position to the noun (e.g., ἀγαθὸς βασιλεύς = a king is good).
    • Though much less common than the attributive relation, in equative clauses this is not uncommon.

    • Mark 12:31
    • μείζων τούτων ἄλλη ἐντολὴ οὐκ ἔστιν
    • no other command is greater than these

    • 1 Cor 12:17
    • εἰ ὅλον ἀκοή, ποῦ ἡ ὄσφρησις;
    • If the whole [body] were an ear [lit. hearing], where would the sense of smell be?

    • Jas 1:12
    • μακάριος ἀνὴρ ὃς ὑπομένει πειρασμόν
    • blessed is the man who endures a trial

    Daniel B. Wallace, Greek Grammar Beyond the Basics - Exegetical Syntax of the New Testament ( (Zondervan Publishing House and Galaxie Software, 1999; 2002)), 309.
  12. The Anarthrous Noun-Adjective Construction:
    Fourth Attributive Position & (Anarthrous) Second Predicate Position
    • Fourth Attributive Position
    • When it has been determined from the context that an adjective in a noun-adjective construction expresses an attributive relation to the noun, such a construction is in the fourth attributive position.

    The reason for this is that both the second and third attributive positions involve an adjective following a noun.

    Thus to say that an adjective is in the fourth attributive position is to say that the article does not occur in the construction at all (e.g., βασιλεὺς ἀγαθός = a good king). This usage is quite common.

    • Mark 1:8
    • αὐτὸς βαπτίσει ὑμᾶς ἐν πνεύματι ἁγίῳ
    • he will baptize you in the Holy Spirit

    • John 3:16
    • μὴ ἀπόληται ἀλλ̓ ἔχῃ ζωὴν αἰώνιον
    • he should not perish but have eternal life

    • Phil 1:6
    • ὁ ἐναρξάμενος ἐν ὑμῖν ἔργον ἀγαθὸν ἐπιτελέσει
    • the one who began a good work in you will complete it

    • (Anarthrous) Second Predicate Position
    • When the same construction has been determined from the context to express a predicate relation, the adjective is in the second (anarthrous) predicate position to the noun (e.g., βασιλεὺς ἀγαθός = a king is good).

    This usage is relatively common, especially in equative clauses.

    • Matt 13:57
    • οὐκ ἔστιν προφήτης ἄτιμος εἰ μὴ ἐν τῇ πατρίδι
    • a prophet is not without honor except in his homeland

    • Rom 7:8
    • χωρὶς νόμου ἁμαρτία νεκρά
    • apart from the law, sin is dead

    • Heb 9:17
    • διαθήκη ἐπὶ νεκροῖς βεβαία
    • a covenant is confirmed at death

    Daniel B. Wallace, Greek Grammar Beyond the Basics - Exegetical Syntax of the New Testament ( (Zondervan Publishing House and Galaxie Software, 1999; 2002)), 310.
  13. Some Exegetically and Theologically Significant Passages in Anarthrous Constructions
    • In anarthrous constructions there are a few passages that deserve some discussion due to their exegetical and/or theological significance.
    • In all of these texts, NT scholars have seen the adjectives in question as ambiguous or definitely attributive. But a case can be made that the adjective in question is predicate.

    • Acts 19:2
    • οὐδ ̓ εἰ πνεῦμα ἅγιον ἔστιν ἠκούσαμεν
    • There are three translation possibilities for this text: (1) “we have not heard whether there is a Holy Spirit”; (2) “we have not heard whether the Holy Spirit was [given]” (cf. John 7:39); or (3) “we have not heard whether a spirit can be holy.”

    • Titus 2:10
    • πᾶσαν πίστιν ἐνδεικνυμένους ἀγαθήν
    • There are two possibilities here: (1) “showing forth all good faith” and (2) “showing forth all faith [to be] good.”

    • 2 Tim 3:16
    • πᾶσα γραφὴ θεόπνευστος καὶ ὠφέλιμος
    • every scripture is inspired and profitable
    • Many scholars feel that the translation should be: “Every inspired scripture is also profitable.” This is probably not the best translation.

    Daniel B. Wallace, Greek Grammar Beyond the Basics - Exegetical Syntax of the New Testament ( (Zondervan Publishing House and Galaxie Software, 1999; 2002)), 313.

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