A&P Chapter 4: The Tisssue level of organization

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A&P Chapter 4: The Tisssue level of organization
2010-09-20 11:41:29
chapter Tisssue level organization

A&P chapter 4: The Tisssue level of organization
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  1. Tissies
    Collections of specialized cels tjat perform a group function
  2. Histology
    The study of tissues
  3. For tupes of tissies
    • Epithelial
    • Connectibe
    • Nervour
    • Micle tissue
  4. Epithelial tissue
    Cobers ans lines passageways organs ans chambers
  5. Connective tissues
    Provides structural support transports materials stores energy and defends against infection
  6. Mucle tissue
    Contractile tissue results in moveement also generates heat to warmthe body
  7. Nervous tissue
    Chemical and electrical communicator tissue that carries messsages from one part of the body to another
  8. Epihelia tissue characteristics
    • Cellilarity
    • Polarity
    • Attachment
    • Avascularity
    • Regeneration
  9. Cellularity
    All. Ells boind together with very little mayerial between the cells
  10. Polarity
    Has orientation with a finctional dirrection on side is exposed valled the apival surface
  11. Apical surfacr
    Surface where cell is eposed to an internal or external enviorment
  12. Lumen
    where apical surface faces in apical surface sucreeyes into lumen and absorbs fron the lumen
  13. Stereocilia
    Similar to micrivilli but very long the do not move mayerials
  14. Ciliayed epithelium
    Move material witha coordinated beat
  15. Basolateral surface
    Base ans side attachment surfaces
  16. Basement attachment
    Basal lamina(not membranebecause it is acellular) base of epithelium attacjed to basal lamina the basal lamina is secteated by cells
  17. Reticular lamina
    Deeper layer than basal lamina and has fiber bundels in it
  18. Cell adhesion molecules
    Tramsmembrane proteins bind to each other and extracellular materials such as the basal lamina
  19. Intracellular cement
    Bonds adjacent cells with proteoglycans
  20. Hyaluronan
    Polysaccharide derivative in intercellular cement
  21. Tight junction
    Interlocking junctional proteins between cells. Nieher ions nor water can pass
  22. Gap junction
    cells held together by interlocking membrane channel proteins. Great foe electical and chemichal communi ation between cells
  23. Desmosome and hemidesmososmes
    Dense areas of cell membrane anchored into cytoskeleton
  24. Avascularity
    No blood vessels nutrients and waste exchange is via absorption or diffusion throgh the exposed surface or attached surface
  25. Regeneration
    Casual replacement and repair from underlying germative cells
  26. Germative cells
    Stem cells that are used by the body to regenerate the skin
  27. Epithelial tissue functions
    • Provides physical protection -physical barierbinside ans outside of the organisim protects from abrasion and dehydration provides fist line of defense
    • Controlls permiability- the epithelial linining can change in order to allow thing in or keep things out
    • Provides sensation- specialized epi cells can detect changes In the enviorment and communicate with the nervous system
    • Produces specialized secretions- gland cells
  28. Neuroepithelium
    Sensory cells in epithelim that detect stimuli for sight smell taste equlibrium and healing
  29. Glandular epithelium
    Where most of the epithelium consists od gland cells
  30. Epithelia cell types of layers
    • Simple: singel layer of cells
    • Stratified more than one layer of cells
  31. Pseudostratified
    One layer of columnar cells with the apperance of miti-layers of cells
  32. Transitional
    Stratified epohelial that can strech to few layers. Transitional because the cells. Hange in appearence depending on how streched the tissue is
  33. Types of epithelial cells
    • Squamos-thin flat irregular in shape cells like puzzle peices from a birds eye view has six sides has a flat nucleus in cross section view.
    • Cubodial: cube chaped cells with central roind nucleus.
    • Columnar: colum like cells in shape more cytoplasm thsn nucleus look like rectangles
  34. Glandular epihelia
    Endocrine glands and exocrine glands
  35. Endocrine glands
    (Ductless) secretions released into the bloodstreem to affect another part of the body
  36. Exocrine glands
    (ducts) secretions arre relesedbthrough ducts into immediate surrounding areas
  37. Ducts
    Tubular passageways that directly collect and release sectetions right onto epithelial surfaces
  38. Modes of secretion
    Merocrine, aprocrine, holocrine,
  39. Merocrine secretion
    Secretion released by exocytosos ex saliva mucus
  40. Aprocrine secretion
    Lose the apical portion of the glandular cell with the sevretion ex underarm perspiration mamary gland secretions
  41. Holocrine secretions
    Entire cell becomes packed with secretory productsand then ruptures ex sabaceous glands
  42. Unicellular sevretory cell
    Individul secretory cell example goblet cells in trachea secrete mucins
  43. Milticellular secretory cellp
    Multiple secretory cells gathered or organized together ex mucin secreting cells on the stomach lining for a protevtive sheet in order to line the stomach
  44. Connective tissue characteristic
    • 45% of our body weight is coposed of this they also share three components:
    • They have specialized cells like fibroblasts osteocytes and macrophagesthey have extracellular protein fibers and they contain ground substance blood and bone have all of this
  45. Etracellular potein fiber
    Collogen elastic ans recticular tussue
  46. Speciallized cells
    Examples arr fibroblasts osteocytes and macrophages
  47. Ground substance
    Extracellular fluid that can be viscous with proteoglycans and glycoproteins. The more viscous the ground substance te slower the pathogens can move through it making pathogens an easier target
  48. Matrix
    Extracellular protein fibers plus ground substance
  49. Connective tissue functions
    • Structure (bone)
    • Trandport -blood
    • Protects- bone
    • Supportive structure- carilage
    • Store energy -fat
    • Defensive-blood lymph, loose connective tissue
  50. Connective tissue proper
    Loose ans dense
  51. Fluid connective tissue
    Blood and lymph
  52. Supporting connective tissue
    Cartilage and bone
  53. Fibroblasts cell
    Most abundant ell resident in connective tissue proper secrete hyaluronan and protein fibers
  54. Macrophages cell
    Defensive cell that phagocytizes(eats) pathogens ans presents them to the immune system
  55. Adipocytes cell
    Fat cells store lipid droplets
  56. Mesenchymal cells
    Stem cells that aid durring the course of an infection or in repair of an injury mesochymal cells provide daughter cells that can specialize (differentiate) and replace injured and dead cells
  57. Melanocytes cell
    Synhesize and store the pigment melanain
  58. Mast cells
    Carry histamine granuals to stimulate local inflamatory responses
  59. Lymphocytes cell
    Circulating defenders and plasma cells
  60. Plasma cells
    Antibody producing and secreting cells which attack pathogens
  61. Neutrophils cell
    First line of defense that arrive at the site of an infection, phagocytic, granualar, dead neutrophils and cell debris=pus)
  62. Eosinophils cell
    Hot pink granules some phagocytosois attack parasites
  63. Collagen fibers
    Long straight unbranchrd (rope) made of collagen protein. It is tough ans strong ex tendons ligaments
  64. Recticular fibers
    Also made of collogen proteins but thinner fiber than collagen fibers form an inyerwovem meshwork that is strong ans flexible to set the area for functional cell to work in example spleen
  65. Elastic fibers
    Made of elastin protein can be branched and wavy and can return to original size and shape ex elastic ligaments
  66. Marfan's syndrome
    Patients have a defective glycoprotein (fribalin- normally gives connective tissue its strenght and flexibility) in the connective tissue affects all tissue with any connective tissue component especially the cardiovascular system and bone formation
  67. Loose connective tissue
    Coushins the body and fills space
  68. Areolar tissue
    Least specialized of adult connective tissues can contain all cell types and fibers. Most of its volume is ground substance has a loose framework ex lamina propria of the digestive track
  69. Adipose loose connective tisssue
    Provides padding to absorb shock as well as insulate and store enerygy
  70. White fat cells
    The adipocytes in adults that store large lipid droplets
  71. Brown fat cells
    In babiesnand young children between the shoulder blades and aroun upper body and neck which break down fat and generate heat to be circulated they are dark in appreance due to high mitocondrial concentrations and they are highly vascularized
  72. Recticular loose connecrive tissue
    Soft internal skeleton (stroma) of recticular fibers for special cells to work in ex spleen re bone marrow lymph node and liver
  73. Dense regular connective tissue
    Bundels of protein fibers (collogen or elastic) organized in parallel alighnment ex tendons aponeuroses ligaments elastic ligaments
  74. Dense irrregular connective tissue
    Interwoven meshwork that lends strenght and support ex organ capsules can take presure from sifferent directions
  75. Blood
    Contains RBC's WBC's platelets asma that move rapidly through pur circulation
  76. Lymph
    Fluid contents of lymphnatic vessels that is similar in compostition to the intestinal fluid it carries WBC's as well as lymphocytez and components to large to be carried by capilaries
  77. Supportive connecting tissues
    Cartilage and bone
  78. Cartilage
    Avascular and waste diffuse through matrix its matrix is made up of chondrotin sulfates that combine with proteins to make porteoglycans
  79. Chondrocytes
    Cartilage cells
  80. Antiangiogenesis factor
    Produced by chondrocytes so no blood vessels grow in the cartilage
  81. Hyaline cartialage
    Strong and somewhat flexible most abundant type of cartilage in our body. Packe with cologen fiber that are evenly distributed found in places such as the articulating surfaces of bones T synovial joints (redu e friction between bones) costal cartilage, supports the larynx trachea bronchi and form part of the nasal septum
  82. Elastic cartialage
    Made with elastic fibers provided support Nd tolerates distortion can be found in the pinna of the ear auditory canal and the cuneiform cartelige of larynx
  83. Fibrocrartilage
    Has litttle ground substance and bundlesmof collogen fibers resisys compression limits relative movement and prevents bone to bone contact ex pads within the knee joints
  84. Bone
    (Vascular ) canaliculi + osten central canals+ perforating canals. Matrix of bone has minimL liquid surriunding calcium phosphate(about 2/3 bone wieght) and calcium hydro-xide
  85. Membranes
    Combination of epithelial tissues ans connective tissues
  86. Mucous membranen
    In digestive track reproductive track urinary track and repiratory track mucins( moucius= mucin + water) are secreted by goblet cells or mulicellular gland cells
  87. Serous membranes
    Line internalndivisions of the ventral cavity (pleura pertoneum, and pericardium) and secrete serous fluid
  88. Cutaneous membrane
    Skin thick waterproof and dry made of stratified epithelium areolar connective tissue wih adipose tissue a d dense irregular connective tissue
  89. Synovial membranes
    Line the synovial joints are a combination of areolar connective tissueand incomplete epihelium secrete synovial fluid
  90. Mucle tissue
    • Fifty percent of our body weoght is this
    • Two types of ths skeletal ans cardiac
  91. Skeletal muscle tissue
    Striations come from repeated patterns of myosin and actin filaments organized in sarcomeres
  92. Mucle fibers
    Mucsle cells long and slender
  93. Multinuclated
    Adult skelital mucles isnincapablen of dividing. New mucle is generated by satellites cells for repair and building
  94. Cardiac mucle tissue
    Straiated involuntaryhas crdiocytes intercalated discs and pacemaker cells
  95. Cardiocytes
    Cardiac mucle cells 1-5 nucleate/cells is shorter than skelital fibers
  96. Intercalated disks
    Neccesary for intracellular communication made of gap junctions, intercellular cemet, and desmosomes
  97. Pacemakes cells
    Specialized cadiac mucle cells that help regulate the rate of heart contractions
  98. Smoothe mucle tissue
    In the walls of blood vessels hollow organs along the digestive track and repiratory track
  99. Neural tissues
    2% of body wieght
  100. Neurons
    Specialzed cells that form and tranferr electrical impulses from one end of the body to another
  101. Cell body
    Contains nucleus
  102. Dentrites
    Neurons projections from the cell body to recieve stimili
  103. Axon
    Nerve fibers impulse travels from cell body through an axon to the next nerve or an effector tissue
  104. Neurogilia cells
    Support cells of nurons
  105. Inflamation
    Damaged cells signal for help dialate vessels and increase permiability of local capilaries phagocytes enter and clean up
  106. Necrosis
    Tissue damage and then death through the release of lusosomal enzymes
  107. Pus
    Dead dying cells cell debris spent neutrophils and fluid
  108. Abcess
    Accumilation of pus
  109. Regeneration
    Damaged tissues are replaced for more normal function or necrotic tissue replaced by scar tissue to heal a wound
  110. Osteoperosis
    Decreased bone strengthto the point that they are brittle and susceptibility of breaking easily
  111. Pathologist
    Person that studies disease states
  112. Biopsies
    Sample of tissue for diagnosis
  113. Dysplasia
    Change of cell shape
  114. Metaplasia
    Change of cell shape enought to distort tissue structure and therefore tissue's function
  115. Anaplasia
    Cells become tumor cells ans tissue organization breaks down abnormal genes are expressed
  116. 7 warning signs of cancer

    • C: change in bowel or bladder habits
    • A: a sore that does not heal
    • U: unusual bleeding or discharge
    • T: thickening or lump in breast or elsewhere
    • I: indegestion or dificulty swollowing
    • O: obvious change in wart or mole
    • N: nagging cough or hoarsness