Chapter 4 Drugs and Behavior

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Chapter 4 Drugs and Behavior
2010-10-04 12:18:41

Ch 4 test two
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  1. nerve cells
  2. Schwann Cells
    • 1. found in the peripheral nervous system (outside the brain and spinal cord)
    • 2. Aid in the regeneration of damaged nerve fibers
    • 3. Lay down the Myelin Sheath
  3. Oligodendroglia = glial cells
    • 1. found in the CNS (brain)
    • 2. involved in memory
    • 3. lay down the myelin sheath
  4. Dendrites
    specialized for excitability
  5. Cell body
    controls the metabolism of the cell
  6. axon
    speicalized for conduction (transporting info)
  7. myelin sheath
    a covering over the axon that aids in the conduction of nerve impluses
  8. nodes of ranvier
    interruptions of the myelin sheath
  9. axon hillock
    enlarged region where the axon emerges
  10. axon terminal
    an enlargement at the end of the axon aka the terminal bouton or terminal button
  11. resting potential
    recorded from the axon not being stimulated
  12. polarization
    a difference of electrical charge on the two sides of the membrane
  13. action potential
    recorded from the axon
  14. ARP = Absolute Refractory Period
    no stimulus no matter how great it is capable of eliciting a response
  15. RRP = relative refractory period
    a greater than normal stimulus is capable of eliciting a response.
  16. All- or -nothing- law
    an axon fires completely or does not fire at all. (this law does not apply to dendrites and the cell body)
  17. the synapse
    place where information is transferred between neurons. ( gap between nerve cells)
  18. Terminal bouton
    a swelling at the end of the branch of the axon of the presynaptic cell
  19. synaptic cleft
    a gap between the terminal bouton and the postsynaptic cell= synapse
  20. synaptic vesicles
    the site of synthesis storage, and release of a neurotransmitter
  21. neurotransmitter
    the chemical that is caused by the action potential arriving at the terminal bouton, this chemical is then released from the synaptic vesicles into the synaptic cleft
  22. receptor sites
    the neurotransmitter diffuses across the cleft and becomes attached to ..... in the surface of the post synaptic cell
  23. Excitatory Postsynaptic Potential (EPSP)
    when the neurotransmitter attaches to a receptor site it causes a depolarization of the membrane surrounding the synapse on the postsynaptic cell by permitting ions to cross the membrane. this depolarization is called....
  24. Inhibitory Postsynaptic Potential (IPSP)
    at these synapses the neurotransmitters hyperpolarizes the postsynaptic membrane making it harder for the cell to produce action potentials
  25. 1. depolarization of membrane allows entry of CA++
    2. CA++ causes the vesicles to fuse with plasma membrane
    3. Neurotransmitters released (e.g. acetylcholine)
    4. Neurotransmitter binds to receptor
    NA+ gates open => depolarization EPSP
    Summary of Synaptic transmission
  26. autoreceptors
    • receptors on neurons through which neurons regulate their own activity (i.e thier excitability and release of their own neurotransmitters)
    • called this because they activated by the same types of neurotransmitters released by neurons
  27. to enhance the release of dopamine from axon terminals
    one of the actions of amphetamine
  28. basal ganglia
    involved in motor cordination (affected in parkisons disease)
  29. limbic lobe
    part of the anatomical substrate for emotions
  30. Hippocampus
    • involved in memory (transfering short term to long term)
    • destroy - memory deficits
  31. Amygdala
    • an excitatory structure
    • destroy = tameness docility or placidity
  32. Septum
    • an inhibitory structure
    • destroy-> rage
  33. recticular formation
    • overlaps the forebrain, midbrain, and hindbrain.
    • this part of the brain alerts and arouses the cortex
    • many drugs ( sleeping pills and stimulants) act on this part of the brain