Lecture: Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology

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Lecture: Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology
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2010-10-02 20:03:20
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IBHS exam 3 (exam 1 for IBHS 524) : Bryant
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  1. Context: definitions
    anatomy
    • the study of internal and external structures of the body and the physical relationships
    • among body parts
  2. Context: definitions
    physiology
    the study of how living organisms perform their vital functions
  3. T/F
    All specific functions are performed by general structures.
    • False
    • All specific functions are performed by specific structures.
  4. context: anatomy
    2 general types of anatomy
    • 1) gross (macroscopic)
    • 2) microscopic
  5. context: 2 general types of anatomy
    gross
    • aka: macroscopic
    • examination of relatively large structures and features usually visible with the unaided eye
    • (no you're gross .... jk) :D you're pretty.
  6. context: 2 general types of anatomy
    microscopic
    examination of structures that cannot be seen without magnification
  7. context: 2 general types of anatomy
    List the 5 subcategories of Gross anatomy
    • 1) surface anatomy
    • 2) regional anatomy
    • 3) systemic anatomy
    • 4) development anatomy
    • 5) clinical anatomy
    • just memorize this somehow...
  8. context: 5 subcategories of Gross anatomy
    surface anatomy
    study of general form & superficial markings
  9. context: 5 subcategories of Gross anatomy
    regional anatomy
    study of specific area of body: like head, neck, trunk
  10. context: 5 subcategories of Gross anatomy
    systemic anatomy
    study of structure of organ systems
  11. context: 5 subcategories of Gross anatomy
    developmental anatomy
    • study of changes that occur between conception & physical maturity
    • ex: Embryology: study of changes during 1st two months
  12. context: 5 subcategories of Gross anatomy
    clinical anatomy
    Medical, radiographic, surgical anatomy
  13. context: Microscopic anatomy
    2 subcategories/types of microscopic anatomy
    • 1) cytology
    • 2) histology
  14. context: 2 subcategories/types of microscopic anatomy
    cytology
    study of structure of individual cells
  15. context: 2 subcategories/types of microscopic anatomy
    histology
    study of structure of tissues
  16. context: physiology terminology
    List the 4 types of physiology area
    • 1) cell physiology
    • 2) special physiology
    • 3) systemic physiology
    • 4) pathological physiology
  17. context: 4 types of physiology
    cell physiology
    study of function of cells (within & between)
  18. context: 4 types of physiology
    special physiology
    • study of function of specific organs
    • ex: Cardiac
  19. context: 4 types of physiology
    systemic physiology
    study of function of organ system
  20. context: 4 types of physiology
    pathological physiology
    study of effect of diseases on organ or system functions
  21. context: levels of organization
    List 6 levels of organization
    • 1) molecule
    • 2) cell
    • 3) tissue
    • 4) organ
    • 5) organ system
    • 6) organism
  22. context: 6 levels of organization
    molecular level
    • aka: chemical level
    • atoms combine to form molecules
  23. context: 6 levels of organization
    cellular level
    cells and their organelles; smallest living unit in body
  24. context: 6 levels of organization
    tissue level
    group of cells working together to perform specialized function
  25. context: 6 levels of organization
    organ level
    organs consist of 2 or more tissues working in combination
  26. context: 6 levels of organization
    organ system level
    • organ interactions to form a system
    • Ex: Cardiovascular system—heart, blood, lungs
  27. context: 6 levels of organization
    organism level
    highest level of organization; human
  28. context: organ systems
    List the 12 organ systems
    • 1. Integumentary
    • 2. Skeletal
    • 3. Muscular
    • 4. Nervous
    • 5. Endocrine
    • 6. Cardiovascular
    • 7. Lymphatic
    • 8. Respiratory
    • 9. Digestive
    • 10. Urinary
    • 11. Male reproductive
    • 12. Female reproductive
    • (just say these many times in your head into you live, eat, breathe the organ systems that makes who you are).
  29. context: 12 organ systems (players and functions)
    integumentary system
    • major organs:
    • 1) skin, 2) hair, 3) sweat glands, 4) nails
    • functions:
    • 1) protects against environmental hazards, 2) helps regulate body temperature, 3) provides sensory information
  30. context: 12 organ systems (players and functions)
    skeletal system
    • major organs:
    • 1) bones, 2) cartilages, 3) associated ligaments, 4) bone marrow
    • functions:
    • 1) provides support and protection for other tissues, 2) stores calcium and other minerals, 3) forms blood cells
  31. context: 12 organ systems (players and functions)
    muscular system
    • major organs:
    • 1) skeletal muscles and associated tendons
    • functions:
    • 1) provides movement, 2) provides protection and support for other tissues, 3) generates heat that maintains body temperature
  32. context: 12 organ systems (players and functions)
    nervous system
    • major organs:
    • 1) brain, 2) spinal cord, 3) peripheral nerves, 4) sense organs
    • functions:
    • 1) directs immediate responses to stimuli, 2) coordinates or moderates activities of other organ systems, 3) provides and interprets sensory information about external conditions
  33. context: 12 organ systems (players and functions)
    endocrine system
    • major organs:
    • 1) pituitary gland, 2) thyroid gland, 3) pancreas, 4) adrenal glands, 5) gonads (testes and ovaries), 6) endocrine tissues in other systems
    • functions:
    • 1) directs long-term changes in the activities of other organ systems, 2) adjusts metabolic activity and energy use by the body, 3) controls many structural and functional changes during development
  34. context: 12 organ systems (players and functions)
    cardiovascular system
    • major organs:
    • 1) heart, 2) blood, 3) blood vessels
    • functions:
    • 1) distributes blood cells, water, and dissolved materials, including nutrients, waste products, oxygen, and carbon dioxide, 2) distributes heat and assists in control of body temperature
  35. context: 12 organ systems (players and functions)
    lymphatic system
    • major organs:
    • 1) spleen, 2) thymus, 3) lymphatic vessels, 4) lymph nodes, 5) tonsils
    • functions:
    • 1) defends against infection and disease, 2) returns tissue fluids to the bloodstream
  36. context: 12 organ systems (players and functions)
    respiratory system
    • major organs:
    • 1) nasal cavities, 2) sinuses, 3) larynx, 4) trachea, 5) bronchi, 6) lungs, 7) alveoli
    • functions:
    • 1) delivers air to alveoli (sites in lungs where gas exchange occurs), 2) provides oxygen to bloodstream, 3) removes carbon dioxide from bloodstream, 4) produces sounds for communication
  37. context: 12 organ systems (players and functions)
    digestive system
    • major organs:
    • 1) teeth, 2) tongue, 3) pharynx, 4) esophagus, 5) stomach, 6) small intestine, 7) large intestine, 8) liver, 9) gallbladder, 10) pancreas
    • functions:
    • 1) processes and digests food, 2) absorbs and conserves water, 3) absorbs nutrients (ions, water, and the breakdown products of dietary sugars, proteins, and fats, 4) stores energy reserves
  38. context: 12 organ systems (players and functions)
    urinary system
    • major organs:
    • 1) kidneys, 2) ureters, 3) urinary bladder, 4) urethra
    • functions:
    • 1) excretes waste products from the blood, 2) controls water balance by regulating volume of urine produced, 3) stores urine prior to voluntary elimination, 4) regulates blood ion concentrations and pH
  39. context: 12 organ systems (players and functions)
    male reproductive system
    • major organs:
    • 1) testes, 2) epididymis, 3) ductus deferens, 4) seminal vesicles, 5) prostate gland, 6) penis, 7) scrotum
    • functions:
    • 1) produces male sex cells (sperm) and hormones
  40. context: 12 organ systems (players and functions)
    female reproductive system
    • major organs:
    • 1) ovaries, 2) uterine tubes, 3) uterus, 4) vagina, 5) labia, 6) clitoris, 7) mammary glands
    • functions:
    • 1) produces female sex cells (oocytes) and hormones, 2) supports developing embryo from conception to delivery, 3) provides milk to nourish newborn infant
  41. context: superficial anatomy
    anatomical position
    hands are at your side, palms facing forward, feet together
  42. context: anatomical position
    List 2 types of anatomical position
    • 1) supine
    • 2) prone
  43. context: 2 types of anatomical positions
    supine position
    • person laying down face up in the anatomical position
    • REMEMBER: you are hold bowls of SOUP so your palms should be facing up.
  44. context: 2 types of anatomical positions
    prone position
    • person laying down face down in the anatomical position
    • REMEMBER: you are POURING those bowls of SOUP, so palms face down. (ouch don't burn yourself).
  45. only TESTED if APPEARS in both picture and table!!!!!
  46. 4 abdominopelvic quadrants
  47. 9 abdominopelvic regions
  48. context: anatomical Directions
    List 13 anatomical directions
    • 1) anterior
    • 2) ventral
    • 3) posterior or dorsal
    • 4) cranial or cephalic
    • 5) superior
    • 6) caudal
    • 7) inferior
    • 8) medial
    • 9) lateral
    • 10) proximal
    • 11) distal
    • 12) superficial
    • 13) deep
  49. context: 13 anatomical directions
    anterior
    • the front; before
    • ex: the navel is on the anterior surface of the trunk
  50. context: 13 anatomical directions
    ventral
    • the belly side (equivalent to anterior when referring to human body)
    • ex: the navel is on the ventral surface of the trunk
  51. context: 13 anatomical directions
    posterior or dorsal
    • the back; behind
    • ex: the shoulder blade is located posterior to the rib cage
  52. context: 13 anatomical directions
    cranial or cephalic
    • the head
    • ex: the cranial, or cephalic, border of the pelvis is on the side toward the head rather than toward the thigh
  53. context: 13 anatomical directions
    superior
    • above; at a higher level (in human body, toward the head)
    • ex: in humans, the cranial border of the pelvis is superior to the thigh
  54. context: 13 anatomical directions
    caudal
    • the tail (coccyx in humans)
    • ex: the hips are caudal to the waist
  55. context: 13 anatomical directions
    inferior
    • below; at a lower level
    • ex: the knees are inferior to the hips
  56. context: 13 anatomical directions
    medial
    • toward the body's longitudinal axis; toward the midsagittal plane
    • ex: the medial surfaces of the thighs may be in contact; moving medially from the arm across the chest surface brings you to the sternum
  57. context: 13 anatomical directions
    lateral
    • away from the body's longitudinal axis; away from the midsagittal plane
    • ex: the thigh articulates with the lateral surface of the pelvis; moving laterally from the nose brings you to the cheeks
  58. context: 13 anatomical directions
    proximal
    • toward an attached base
    • ex: the thigh is proximal to the foot; moving proximally from the wrist brings you to the elbow
  59. context: 13 anatomical directions
    distal
    • away from an attached base
    • ex: the fingers are distal to the wrist; moving distally from the elbow brings you to the wrist
  60. context: 13 anatomical directions
    superficial
    • at, near, or relatively close to the body surface
    • ex: the skin is superficial to underlying structures
  61. context: 13 anatomical directions
    deep
    • farther from the body surface
    • the bone of the thigh is deep to the surrounding skeletal muscles
    • (oh em gee, why are the examples mostly about the thighs and the pelvis ... what's going on with the author ....)
  62. context: planes and sections
    List the 3 planes (no ... not airplanes)
    • 1) transverse
    • 2) frontal/ coronal
    • 3) sagittal
  63. context: planes and sections
    transverse plane
    • lies at right angles to the long axis of the body; dividing it into superior and inferior portions
    • - Cut in this plane is referred to as cross section
  64. context: planes and sections
    frontal or coronal plane
    parallel to long axis of body extending from side to side; divides body into anterior and posterior portions
  65. context: planes and sections
    sagittal plane
    • parallel to long axis of body and extending from front to back; divides body into left and right portions
    • -Cut along midline is midsagittal section; cut parallel to midsagittal line is parasagittal section
  66. define body cavities
    internal chambers in which many vital organs are suspended
  67. 2 main functions of body cavities
    • 1) Protect delicate organs (brain, spinal cord) from accidental shocks and cushions them (from bumps when we walk, run, jump)
    • 2) Permit significant changes in the size and shape of internal organs; lungs, stomach urinary bladder can all expand or contract without distorting surrounding tissues or organs
  68. context: body cavities
    Ventral body cavity = ?
    hint: 2 primary subdivisions of the ventral body cavity
    • 1) Thoracic cavity + 2) Abdominopelvic cavity
    • Separated by diaphragm
  69. context: 2 primary subdivisions of the ventral body cavity
    thoracic cavity
    • contains:
    • 1) Left & right pleural cavities - Lungs (left and right)
    • 2) Mediastinum
    • 3) heart (Pericardial cavity)
  70. context: 2 primary subdivisions of the ventral body cavity
    abdominopelvic cavity
    • contains:
    • 1) Abdominal cavity = Liver, stomach, spleen, small intestine, most of large intestine + Peritoneal cavity: within dominal (the red outline!!) Chamber lined by serous membrane called peritoneum.**kidneys & pancreas are retroperitoneal (not within the peritoneal cavity part (so outside of the read outline!!!)
    • 2) Pelvic cavity = Distal portion of large intestine, urinary bladder, reproductive organs

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