Chapter 1

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Chapter 1
2010-09-20 16:30:31
Test Measurements

Test and Measurements: Introduction to Psychological Assessment
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  1. Test
    A device or procedure in which a sample of an individual's behavior is obtained, evaluated, and scored using standardized procedures
  2. Measurement
    A set of rules for assigning numbers to represent objects, traits, attributes, or behaviors
  3. Assessment
    Process for collecting information that is used to make inferences about the characteristics of people. Often involves multiple procedures such as tests, interviews, observations, and the review of historical documents
  4. Evaluation
    Activity that involves judging or appraising the value or worth of something
  5. Reliability
    Refers to the stability, accuracy, or consistency of the test scores
  6. Validity
    Refers to the appropriateness or accuracy of the interpretations of test scores
  7. Score
    Code or summary statement, typically numerical, which reflects performance on a test or some other sample of behavior
  8. Individual Differences
    Relatively stable differences between people in behavior, abilities, interests, preferences, beliefs, and other characteristics
  9. What are the three types of Maximum Performance Tests
    • 1) Achievement & Aptitude Tests
    • 2) Speed & Power Tests
    • 3) Objective & Subjective Maximum Performance Tests
  10. Selected-Response Formats Definition
    Presents a question stem and a set of possible answers. Scored using objective, clearly defined rules
  11. Selected-Response Formats Types
    • 1) True/False items
    • 2) Matching items
    • 3) Multipl-choice items
  12. Constructed-Response Formats Definition
    Presents a question stem without a set of possible set of answers. THe test taker has no basis on which to guess the correct answer
  13. Constructed-Response Format Types
    • 1) Fill-in-The Blank items
    • 2) Short/Brief Answer
    • 3) Essay Items
  14. Advantages & Disadvantages of Selected Response Format
    Can be scored in a reliable manner, but subject to random guessing. Not all abilities lend themselves to these formats
  15. Advantages & Disadvantages of Constructed-Response Format
    not subject to random quessing and well suited for some abilities. Subject to feigning and notoriously difficult to score in a reliable manner.
  16. Typical Response Tests
    Measures constructs such as personality, behavior, attitudes, or interests
  17. Types of Typical Response Tests
    • 1) Objective Personality Tests
    • 2) Projective Personality Tests
  18. Response Bias
    Responding in amanner that distorts the test taker's actual characteristic
  19. Projective Personality Tests Definition
    The presentation and interpretation of ambiguous stimuli elicits a process in which the test taker "prjects" his/her feelings, needs, and inner experiences
  20. Formats of Projective Tests
    • 1) Verbal Formats - sentence completion tests & Free association tasks
    • 2) Projective Drawings - house-tree-person & Draw-A-Person Test
    • 3) Pictorial Techniques - Inkblot Tests & Apperception Tests
  21. Advantages & Disadvantages of Objective Personality Tests
    Can be scored in a reliable maner, but subject to response biases. Validity scores are often developed to detect Response Bias
  22. Advantages & Disadvantages of Projective Personality
    Reportedly more difficult to fake, major concerns about reliability and validity
  23. Assumptions of Psychological Assesment(10)
    • 1) Psychological Constructs exist
    • 2) Psychological constructs can be measured
    • 3) While we can measure constructs, our measurement is not perfect
    • 4) There are different ways to measure any given construct
    • 5) All assessment procedures have strengths and limitations
    • 6) Multiple sources of information should be part of the assessment process
    • 7) Performance on tests can be generalized to nontests behaviors
    • 8) Assessment can provide information that helps psychologists make better decisions
    • 9) Assessments can be conducted in a fair manner
    • 10) Testing and assessment can benefit our society as a whole
  24. Characteristics of Tests
    • 1) Standard set of questions or stimuli that the test taker responds to
    • 2) Standard procedures for administration
    • 3) Standard procedures for scoring
  25. Advantage of standardized test formats
    differences in test performance reflects true individual differences, not differences in the questions asked
  26. Tests versus Interviews
    • 1) Interviews are more flexible
    • 2) The price of flexibility is reduced reliability
    • 3) Structured interviews are currently being used to enhance reliability
  27. Applications of Psychological assessments
    • 1) Diagnosis
    • 2) Treatment Planning
    • 3) Selection, placement, and classification
    • 4) Self-understanding/counseling & Guidance
    • 5) Evaluation
    • 6) Licensing
    • 7) Program Evaluation
    • 8) Scientific Research
  28. Assessment Competencies for Professional Psychologists
    • 1) Psychologists should understand the basic mathematical and statistical concepts related to measurement
    • 2) Psychologists should understand the basic principles of classical and modern test theory
    • 3) Psychologists should be familiar with the wide variety of assessments used in psychological settings
    • 4) Psychologists should be proficient in selecting professionally developed assessment procedures for applied and research applications
    • 5) Psychologists should be proficient in administering, scoring, and interpreting assessments
    • 6) Psychologists should be proficient in using the results of assessments to answer research questions and make clinical decisions
    • 7) Psychologists should be proficient in communicating assessment results to clients and other professionals
    • 8) Psychologists should understand current professional standards taht govern test development, use, and interpretation
    • 9) Psychologists should be familiar with the ethical and legal issues that govern the use of assessments