BIO 163

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BIO 163
2010-09-21 09:04:29

intro to skeletal system
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  1. What is the most superficial tissue of a bone?
  2. What is the periosteum composed of?
    dense irregular collagenous connective tissue that is supplied with blood vessels.
  3. What cells are in the innermost layer of the periosteum?
  4. What cell secretes bone matrix and builds new bone?
  5. What cell secretes enzymes that break down bone matrix?
  6. What anchores the periosteum to the bone?
    Bundles of collagen called perforating or Sharpey's fibers.
  7. Deep in the periosteum there is osseous tissue. What are the two general types of osseous tissue?
    Compact bone and Spongy bone
  8. Which osseous tissue is dense bone tissue found immediately deep to the periosteum?
    Compact bone
  9. The hardness of the compact bone comes from its structure, which consists of repeating, densely packed subunits called__________.
  10. Concentric rings of bone matrix
  11. What does the lamellae do for the compact bone?
    Gives the bone strength
  12. What canal runs down the center of each osteon?
    Central (Haversian) Canal
  13. Each central (Haversian) canal contains blood vessels and nerves and is lined with a connective tissue membrane called the _____________.
  14. LIKE Periosteum, the Endosteum has an inner layer of osteoblasts, which secrete bone matrix, and osteoclasts, which degrade bone.
  15. Small cavities between the lamellae
  16. Lacunae contains mature osteoblasts called___________.
  17. A cell which monitors and maintains the bone matrix.
  18. neighboring lacunae are connected to each other by tiny canals called_________.
  19. Canals that lie perpendicular to the osteon and carry blood vessels into the bone from the periosteum.
    Perforating (Volkmann's) canals.

    NOTE: Like the central canals, perforating canals are lined by the endosteum.
  20. Where is spongy bone found?
    The inside of a bone deep to compact bone.
  21. Spongy bone resembles a sponge and consists of a lattice-work-type structure with tyny bone spicules called__________.
  22. the latticework structure of cancellous bone allows it to house another important tissue called _____ ______.
  23. What are the two types of bone marrow?
    Red bone marrow- which produces blood cells

    Yellow bone marrow- which is composed primarily of adipose tissue.
  24. If trabeculae is composed of lamallea why does spongy bone lack the hardness of compact bone?
    Trabeculae is composed of lamallae but are not organized into osteons like compact bone is.
  25. NOTE: Osseous tissue is a type of connective tissue composed of 2 primary chemical components.

    --Consists mostly of protein fibers such as collagen. Collagen provides a supportive network that gives the bone tensile strength (the ability to withstand stretching and twisting forces).
    Organic Components
  26. Consists mostly of calcium in the form of calcium hydroxyapatite crystals. The component provides the bone with compressional strength (the ability to wishstand compressive forces).
    Inorganic Component
  27. NOTE: Both chemical components of bone are required for bone to remain strong and perform its functions.

    What is calcium hydroxyapatite crystals?
  28. Longer than they are wide, and include the bones of the upper and lower extremities excluding the ankle and wrist bones.
    Long Bones
  29. ABOUT as long as they are wide. The bones of the wrist and the ankle.
    Short Bones
  30. are shaped exactly as they're named--- FLAT
    Flat bones include the ribs, sternum, clavicle, certain skull bones, and the bones of the pelvis.
  31. those whose shape doesn't fit into any of the other classes.
    Irregular Bones- include the vertebrae and certain bones of the skull.
  32. The shaft of the long bone
  33. a thick collar of compact bone surrounding a hollow area on the diaphysis. This collar of compact bone makes long bones strong and able to support the bondy's weight. Has sparse trabeculae and is filled with yellow bone marrow in the living bone.
    Medullary cavity
  34. The ends of a long bone are called ________ which have a shell of compact bone surrounding the inner spongy bone.
  35. What does the spongy bone within the epiphysis contain?
    Red or Yellow bone marrow
  36. What's at the end of each epiphysis that allows 2 bones to articulate during movement with minimal friction?
    hyaline cartilage (sometimes called articular cartilage)
  37. At certain epiphysis-diaphysis junctions there is a thin, clacified line what is it called?
    Epiphyseal line
  38. the epiphyseal line is the remnant (results) of the _________ _________. It is a band of hyaline cartilage from which long bones grow in length.
    epiphyseal plate