549 Chapter 1

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  1. How can measurement, assessment and evaluation be distinguished from one another?
    Measurement: differentiation and description through numerical expression; observations expressed using language of numbers. quantitative data e.g., measurement of weight. The degree of accuracy needed in a measurement is related to the purpose it serves.e.g., psychology, education vs. physical sciences, engineering. Includes #'s, helps to create scale

    • Assessment: Assessment becomes measurement when numerical values are referenced. e.g., height of an individual
    • “Tall” = assessment vs.“7 feet” = measurement. reliability of measurement not necessarily important here. Qualitative data, scale, admin, observations helps form observation.

    Evaluation: both measurement and assessment. Summing up process. value judgments and decisions based on collection of data. judgments based on one’s interpretation of collective performance. Includes score, judgements, results, interpretation. Gather pools of assessments. Compile info to make a determination or decision.
  2. What are the principals that define competent assessment?
    (1) The uses and limitations of measures.

    • (2) The criteria by which the quality of a
    • test (or other instrument) should be judged and how to secure evidence relating
    • to these criteria.

    • (3) How to develop a test and write the test
    • questions to be included in it.

    • (4) How to select a test or other instrument
    • that will be effective in a particular situation.

    • (5) How to administer a test properly,
    • efficiently, and fairly.

    • (6) How to interpret test scores correctly
    • and fully, with recognition of their limitations.
  3. Differentiate between objectivity and subjectivity in the context of the testing process.
    Two types in Evaluation:

    Objective – rating is constant irrespective of the rater ne.g., fastest runner

    Subjective – degree to which rating is vulnerable to personal bias ne.g., best athlete

    Types also apply to measurement and assessment
  4. Types of Observations
    Important in data collection processes. qualitative data = assessment/¡quantitative data =measurement

    Two types:

    Observable (overt)

    Unobservable (covert)

    Latent vs. manifest variables

    many variables not directly observable

    presence/absence of variable must be inferred through external sources e.g., psychological tests.

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549 Chapter 1
2010-09-21 19:47:21

Chapter 1
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