# Chapter 3

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1. Norm-Referenced
A score interpretation based on a comparison of a test taker's performance to that of other people

• Relative
• applied to both maximum performance tests and typical response tests
2. Criterion-Referenced
The test taker's performance is compared to a specified level or standard of performance

• Absolute
• maximum performance tests
3. Characteristics of NOrmal Distribution
• unimodal
• symmetrical
• refereed to as the Gaussian or bell-shaped curve
• mean = median
4. Standard Scores
• linear transformations of raw scores to a scale with a predetermined mean and standard deviation
• retain a direct relationship with the raw scores and the distribution retains its original shape
• reflect interval level measurement
• use standard deviation units to indicate where a subject's score is located relative to the mean of the distribution

• z-scores; mean of 0, SD of 1
• T-Scores: mean of 50, SD of 10
• IQ scores: mean of 100, SD of 15
• CEEB SDcores: mean of 500, SD of 100
5. Normalized Standard Scores
• 1) standard scores based on underlying distributions that were not originally normal, but were transformed into normal distributions
• 2) Often involve nonlinear transformations and may not retain a direct relationsihp with the original raw scores
• 3) Normlized standard scores are typically interpreted in a manner similar to other standard scores
6. Percentile Rank
Interpreted as reflecting the percentage of individuals scoring below a given point in a distribution
7. Quartile Scores
Based on percentile ranks

• The lower 25% receive quartile score of 1
• 26-50% a quartile score of 2
• 51-75% a quartile score of 3
• The upper 25% a quartile of 4
8. Decile Scores
• Divides the distribution of percentile ranks into ten equal parts
• The lowest decile score is 1 corresponds to scores with a percentile ranks between - and 1-%
• The highest decile score is 10 and corresponds to scores with percentile ranks between 90 and 100%
Norm-referenced score interpretation that identifies the academic "grade level" achieved by the student
• 1) Based on assumptions that are not accurate in many situations
• 2) There is not a predictable relationship between grade equivalents and percentile ranks
• 3) A common misperception is that students should receive instruction at the level suggested by their grade equivalents
11. Age Equivalents
share many of the limitations of Grade Equivalents and as a general rule they should also be avoided
12. Criterion-Referenced Score Interpretations
• 1) the examinee's performance is not compared to that of other people, but to a specified level of performance
• 2) empasize what the examinee knows or what they can do, not their standing relative to other test takers
• 3) the most important consideration is how clearly the knowledge or skill domain is specified or defined
• 4) common for tests designed for criterion-referenced interpretations to assess more narrowly focused content domains
• 5) Percent Correct: the student correctly answered X% of the questions
• 6) Mastery Testing: a "cut score" is established and all scores equal to or above this score are reported as "pass"
• 7) Standard Based Interpretations: Not proficient, Partially Proficient, Proficient & Advanced Performances; A, B, C, D, & F
 Author: aking13 ID: 36075 Card Set: Chapter 3 Updated: 2010-09-20 21:21:50 Tags: Test Measurements Folders: Description: Chapter 3: The Meanings of Test Scores Show Answers: