Chapter 3

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Chapter 3
2010-09-20 17:21:50
Test Measurements

Chapter 3: The Meanings of Test Scores
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  1. Norm-Referenced
    A score interpretation based on a comparison of a test taker's performance to that of other people

    • Relative
    • applied to both maximum performance tests and typical response tests
  2. Criterion-Referenced
    The test taker's performance is compared to a specified level or standard of performance

    • Absolute
    • maximum performance tests
  3. Characteristics of NOrmal Distribution
    • unimodal
    • symmetrical
    • refereed to as the Gaussian or bell-shaped curve
    • mean = median
  4. Standard Scores
    • linear transformations of raw scores to a scale with a predetermined mean and standard deviation
    • retain a direct relationship with the raw scores and the distribution retains its original shape
    • reflect interval level measurement
    • use standard deviation units to indicate where a subject's score is located relative to the mean of the distribution

    • z-scores; mean of 0, SD of 1
    • T-Scores: mean of 50, SD of 10
    • IQ scores: mean of 100, SD of 15
    • CEEB SDcores: mean of 500, SD of 100
  5. Normalized Standard Scores
    • 1) standard scores based on underlying distributions that were not originally normal, but were transformed into normal distributions
    • 2) Often involve nonlinear transformations and may not retain a direct relationsihp with the original raw scores
    • 3) Normlized standard scores are typically interpreted in a manner similar to other standard scores
  6. Percentile Rank
    Interpreted as reflecting the percentage of individuals scoring below a given point in a distribution
  7. Quartile Scores
    Based on percentile ranks

    • The lower 25% receive quartile score of 1
    • 26-50% a quartile score of 2
    • 51-75% a quartile score of 3
    • The upper 25% a quartile of 4
  8. Decile Scores
    • Divides the distribution of percentile ranks into ten equal parts
    • The lowest decile score is 1 corresponds to scores with a percentile ranks between - and 1-%
    • The highest decile score is 10 and corresponds to scores with percentile ranks between 90 and 100%
  9. Grade Equivalents
    Norm-referenced score interpretation that identifies the academic "grade level" achieved by the student
  10. Limitations of Grade Equivalents
    • 1) Based on assumptions that are not accurate in many situations
    • 2) There is not a predictable relationship between grade equivalents and percentile ranks
    • 3) A common misperception is that students should receive instruction at the level suggested by their grade equivalents
  11. Age Equivalents
    share many of the limitations of Grade Equivalents and as a general rule they should also be avoided
  12. Criterion-Referenced Score Interpretations
    • 1) the examinee's performance is not compared to that of other people, but to a specified level of performance
    • 2) empasize what the examinee knows or what they can do, not their standing relative to other test takers
    • 3) the most important consideration is how clearly the knowledge or skill domain is specified or defined
    • 4) common for tests designed for criterion-referenced interpretations to assess more narrowly focused content domains
    • 5) Percent Correct: the student correctly answered X% of the questions
    • 6) Mastery Testing: a "cut score" is established and all scores equal to or above this score are reported as "pass"
    • 7) Standard Based Interpretations: Not proficient, Partially Proficient, Proficient & Advanced Performances; A, B, C, D, & F