Psychology Chapter 2

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hsmgrl15@aol.com
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Psychology Chapter 2
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2010-09-20 19:47:00
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chapter 2 psychology test study notes
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  1. a neurotransmitter that plays a role in learning new information, causes the skeletal muscle fibers to contract, and keeps the heart from beating too rapidly.
    acetylcholine
  2. a structure in the limbic system that plays an important role in emotion, particularly in response to unpleasant or punishing stimuli
    amygdala
  3. the slender, tail-like extension of the neuron that transmits signals to the dendrites or cell body of other neurons and to muscles, glands, and other parts of the body
    axon
  4. the structure that begins at the point where the spinal cord enlarges as it enters the brain and handles functions critical to physical survival. It includes the medulla, the pons, and the reticular formation
    brainstem
  5. the part of the neuron that contains the nucleus and carries out of the metabollic functions of the neuron
    cell body
  6. the part of the nervous system comprising the brain and spinal cord
    central nervous system
  7. the brain structure that helps the body execute smooth, skilled movements and regulates muscle tone and posture
    cerebellum
  8. the gray, convoluted covering of the cerebral hempispheres that is responsible for the higher mental processes of language, memory, and thinking
    cerebral cortex
  9. the right and left halves of the cerebrum, covered by the cerebral cortex and connected by the corpus callosum, they control movement and feeling on the opposing sides of the body
    cerebral hemispheres
  10. the largest structure of the human brain, consisting of the two cerebral hemispheres connected by the corpus callosum and covered by the cerebral cortex
    cerebrum
  11. the thick band of nerve fibers that connects the two cerebral hemispheres and makes possible the transfer of information and the synchronization of activity between the hemispheres
    corpus callosum
  12. in a neuron, the branchlike extensions of the cell body that receive signals from other neurons
    dendrites
  13. a neurotransmitter that plays a role in learning, attention, movement, and reinforcement; neurons in the brains of those with Parkinson's disease and schizophrenia are less sensitive to its effects
    dopamine
  14. chemicals produced naturally by the brain that reduce pain and the stress of vigorous exercise and positively affect mood
    endorphins
  15. a neurotransmitter that affects the metablism of glucose and nutrient energy stored in muscles to be released during strenuous exercise.
    epinephrine
  16. the largest of the brain's lobes, which contain the motor cortex, Broca's area, and the frontal association areas
    frontal lobes
  17. specialized cells in the brain and spinal cord that hold neurons together, remove waste products such as dead neurons, and perform other manufacturing, nourishing, and clean up tasks
    glial cells
  18. a structure in the limbic system that plays a central role in the storing of new memories, the response to new or unexpected stimuli, and navigational ability
    hippocampus
  19. a small but influential brain structure that regulates hunger, thirst, sexual behavior, internal body temperature, other body functions, and a wide variety of emotional behaviors
    hypothalamus
  20. the specialization of one of the cerebral hemispheres to handle a particular function
    lateralization
  21. the hemisphere that controls the right side of the body, coordinates complex movements, and, in most people, handles most of the language functions
    left hemisphere
  22. a group of structures in the midbrain, including the amygdala and hippocampus, that are collectively involved in emotional expression, memory, and motivation
    limbic system
  23. the white, fatty coating wrapped around some axons that acts as insulation and enables impulses to travel much faster
    myelin sheath
  24. a specialized cell that conducts impulses through the nervous system and contains threee major parts- a cell body, dendrites, and an axon
    neurons
  25. a chemical substance that is released into the synaptic cleft from the axon terminal of a sending neuron, crosses a synapse, and binds to appropriate receptor sites on the dendrites or cell body of a receiving neuron, influencing the cell either to fire or not to fire
    neurotransmitter
  26. a neurotransmitter affecting eating, alertness, and sleep
    norepinephrine
  27. the lobes that are involved in the reception and interpretation of visual information; they contain the primary visual cortex
    occipital lobes
  28. the lobes that contain the somatosensory cortex and other areas that are responsible for body awareness and spatial orientation
    parietal lobes
  29. the capability of being penetrated or passed through
    permeability
  30. the capacity of the brain to adapt to changes such as brain damage
    plasticity
  31. the part of each temporal lobe where hearing registers in the cerebral cortex
    primary auditory cortex
  32. the area at the rear of the occipital lobes where vision registers in the cerebral cortex
    primary visual cortex
  33. the process through which the developing brain eliminates unneccessary or redundant synapses
    pruning
  34. protein molecules on the surfaces of dendrites and cell bodies that have distinctive shapes and will interact only with specific neurotransmitters
    receptors
  35. the hemisphere that controls that left side of the body and, in most people, is specialized for visual-spatial perception
    right hemisphere
  36. a neurotransmitter that plays an important role in regulating mood, sleep, impulsivity, aggression, and appetite
    serotonin
  37. an extension of the brain, from the base of the brain through the neck and spinal column, that transmits messages between the brain and the peripheral nervous system
    spinal cord
  38. the junction where the axon terminal of a sending neuron communicates with a receiving neuron across the synaptic cleft
    synapse
  39. the lobes that are involved in the reception and interpretation of auditory information; they contain the primary auditory cortex,Wernicke's area, and the temporal association areas
    temporal lobes
  40. the structure, located above the brainstem, that acts as a relay station for information flowing into or out of the fore brain
    thalamus
  41. grouped into hindbrain, midbrain, forebrain
    brainstem
  42. begins at the site where the spinal cord enlarges as it enters the skull
    hindbrain
  43. the___is so important that damaging it would be life-threatening
    brainstem
  44. the____is part of the brain stem that controls heartbeat, blood pressure, coughing and swallowing
    medulla
  45. Makes up 10% of the brains volume
    cerebellum
  46. important to the bodys ability to execute smooth, skilled movements
    cerebellum
  47. regulates muscle tone and posture
    cerebellum
  48. between the hindbrain and forebrain
    midbrain
  49. acts as a relay station between the hindbrain and the forebrain
    midbrain
  50. above the brainstem; teo egg-shaped structures
    thalamus
  51. acts as a relay station for almost all information that flows into and out of the forebrain, including sensory information from all the senses except smell
    thalamus
  52. affects are ability to learn new verbal info and plays a role in the production of language
    thalamus
  53. regulation of sleep cycles
    thalamus
  54. lies directly below the thalamus
    hypothalamus
  55. regulates hunger, thirst, sexual behavior and many other emotional behaviors
    hypothalamus
  56. regulates internal body temperature
    hypothalamus
  57. houses our biological clock
    hypothalamus
  58. located in the interior temporal lobes
    hippocampus
  59. if this area were destroyed, you could not store or recall any new personal or cognitive information
    limbic system
  60. this region also detects and respondes to unexpected or novel sstimuli
    limbic system
  61. in the midbrain (the amygdala & the hippocampus) are involved in emotional expresssion, memory, & motivation
    the limbic system
  62. plays an important role in emotion
    amygdala
  63. helps form vivid memories of emotinal events which enable humans and other animals to avoid dangerous situations
    amygdala
  64. the sight of frightened faces causes neurons in the _________to fire
    amygdala
  65. composed of two cerebral hemispheres
    cerebrum
  66. they are connected at the bottom by a thick band of nerve fibers called the corpus callosum. The CC makes it possible to transfer info and the coordination of activity between hemispheres
    cerebrum
  67. the right hemisphere controls the left side of the body & vice versa
    cerebrum
  68. the hemispheres have a thin outer covering (1/8 in. thick)
    cerebral cortex
  69. responsible for higher mental processes of language, memory, and thinking. often called gray matter
    cerebral cortex
  70. more gray matter =
    higher intelligence
  71. the cerebral cortex contains three types of areas: sensory (vision, hearing, etc.) motor (controls voluntary movement) and association areas ( memories, thoughts, perceptions, language)
    cerebellum
  72. in each cerebral hemisphere there are four lobes
    frontal lobe, pariental lobe, occipital lobe, temporal lobe
  73. largest of the brains lobes
    frontal lobes
  74. begin at the front of the brain and extend to the top center of the skull
    frontal lobes
  75. contains the motor cortex- the area that controls the left side of the body & vice versa
    frontal lobes
  76. the right motor cortex controls the left side of the body & vice versa
    frontal lobe
  77. located directly behind the frontal lobes in the top middle of the brain
    parietal lobes
  78. are involved in the reception & processing of the touch stimuli
    parietal lobes
  79. the front strip of brain tissue in the parietal lobes is the_______
    somatosensory cortex
  80. the site where touch pressure temperature & pain register in the cerebral cortex
    somatosensory cortex
  81. makes you aware of movement in our body & the positions of your body parts at any given moment
    somatosensory cortex
  82. responsible for spacial orientation & sense of direction
    somatosensory cortex
  83. behind the parietal lobes at the rear of the brain
    occipital lobe
  84. involved in the reception & interpretation of visual information
    occipital lobe
  85. at the very back of the occipital lobe is the ___________, where vision registers in the cortex
    primary visual cortex
  86. involved in the interpretation of visual stimuli. it holds memories of past visual experiences & enables us to recognize what is familiar among the things we see
    primary visual cortex
  87. located slightly above the ears & is involved in the reception & interpretation of auditory stimuli
    temporal lobes
  88. the site in the cortex where hearing register is known as the ___________
    primary auditory cortex
  89. the area that houses memories of auditory stimuli
    primary auditory cortex
  90. in 95 % of right handers & about 62 % of left handers
    left hemisphere
  91. controls most of the language functions ( speaking, writing, reading, etc.)
    left hemisphere
  92. specialized for amthematical abilities
    left hemisphere
  93. logis is primarily a ________
    left hemisphere
  94. skilled at visual-spatial relations
    right hemisphere
  95. able to process music better
    right hemisphere
  96. figures out how it is meant & who is saying it
    right hemisphere
  97. able to understand familiar idioms
    right hemisphere
  98. messages transmitted between neurons
    neurotransmitters
  99. inside the axon terminal
    neurotransmitters
  100. small, sphere-shaped containers called synaptic vesicles
    neurotransmitters
  101. each neurotransmitter has a unique shape as does a __________
    receptor
  102. will only accept the neurotransmitter that fits best
    receptor
  103. when neurotransmitters bond with receptors, it is either excitatory or inhibitory
    the action of neurotransmitters
  104. excitatory
    influecing them to fire
  105. inhibitory
    influencing not to fire
  106. the cell body is always making neurotransmitters & unused neurotransmitters can be recycled & used again.
    the action of neurotransmitters
  107. neurotransmitter is taken back into axon terminal for immediate use
    reuptake
  108. ____ chemical subsatnces manufactured by the brain, spinal cord, glands & other part sof the body
    75+
  109. effects skeletal muscle fibers in the heart ( from beating too rapidly)
    acetycholine
  110. helps you store new info in your memory
    acetylcholine
  111. plays an excitatory role
    acetylcholine
  112. both excitatory and inhibitory role
    dopamine
  113. helps in attention learning, movement, & reinforcement
    dopamine
  114. eating habits, alertness, & wakfulness
    norepinephrine
  115. helps release energy during strenuous exercise
    epinephrine
  116. helps regulate mood, sleep, impulsivity, aggression, & appetite
    serotonin
  117. primary excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain
    glutamate
  118. primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain
    GABA
  119. controls anxiety
    GABA
  120. pain relief that can also produce a feeling of pleasure & well-being
    endorphins

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