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kpds words
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  1. abate
    • to become less strong:
    • The storm/wind/rain has started to abate.
    • The fighting in the area shows no sign of abating.

  2. entrepreneur
    • someone who starts their own business, especially when this involves risks:
    • He was one of the entrepreneurs of the eighties who made their money in property.
  3. villainous
    • describes a person or an action that is evil:
    • a villainous dictator
  4. malpractice SPECIALIZED
  5. failure to act correctly or legally when doing your job, often causing injury or loss:
    They are accused of medical/financial/electoral malpractice.
  6. imperative (URGENT)
  7. extremely important or urgent; needing to be done or given attention immediately:
    • [+ that] The president said it was imperative that the release of all hostages be secured.
    • [+ to infinitive] It's imperative to act now before the problem gets really serious.
    • Getting the unemployed back to work, said the minister, is a moral imperative.
  8. dismiss (FORGET)
  9. to decide that something or someone is not important and not worth considering:
    • I think he'd dismissed me as an idiot within five minutes of meeting me.
    • Let's not just dismiss the idea before we've even thought about it.
    • Just dismiss those thoughts from your mind - they're crazy and not worth thinking about.
  10. reunification
    when a country that was temporarily divided into smaller countries is joined together again as one country: the reunification of Germany
  11. pious (RELIGIOUS)
  12. strongly believing in religion, and living in a way which shows this belief: She is a pious follower of the faith, never missing her prayers.
  13. pretend
  14. 1 to behave as if something is true when you know that it is not, especially in order to deceive people or as a game: [+ (that)] He pretended (that) he didn't mind, but I knew that he did. The children pretended (that) they were dinosaurs. [+ to infinitive] Were you just pretending to be interested? She's not really hurt - she's only pretending. Of course I was angry - I can't pretend otherwise.
    2 FORMAL not pretend to do sth to not claim something that is false: I don't pretend to be an expert on the subject.
  15. ablution
    • the act of washing yourself:
    • Ablution is part ofsome religious ceremonies.
    • I must just perform myablutions (= wash
    • myself)!
  16. mumble
    • to speak unclearly and quietly so that the words are difficult to understand:
    • She mumbled something about being too busy.
    • [+ speech] "I'm sorry, " he mumbled.
  17. fracture verb
    • 1 If something hard, such as a bone, fractures or is fractured, it cracks or breaks:
    • She fractured her skull in the accident.
    • Two of her ribs fractured when she was thrown from her horse.
    • A fractured pipe at a steelworks has leaked 20 tons of oil into the Severn estuary.
    • 2 FORMAL
    • to divide an organization or society, or (of an organization or society) to be divided:
    • Intense disagreement over economic policy risks fracturing the coalition government.
  18. wield /wi:ld/ verb [T]
    • 1 to hold a weapon or tool and look as if you are going to use it:
    • She was confronted by a man wielding a knife.
    • 2 wield influence/power, etc. to have a lot of influence or power over other people:
    • He still wields enormous influence within the party.
  19. decree /dI"kri:/ noun [C or U] FORMAL
    • an official statement that something must happen:
    • The decree stopped short of a full declaration of independence.
    • More than 200 people were freed by military decree.
    • They decreed an end to discrimination on grounds of age.
    • [+ that] The local council has decreed that the hospital should close.

  20. afoul /@"faUl/ adverb
    • run/fall afoul of sth/sb to
    • experience problems, punishment or harm because you disobey a rule or disagree
    • with a powerful organization, group or person:
    • He was fifteen when he first ran afoul of the law.
    • At one point Seeger fell afoul of the US government for his antiwar actions.
  21. rig (DISHONESTLY ARRANGE) /rIg/ verb [T] -gg-
    • to arrange dishonestly for the result of something, for example an election, to be changed:
    • Previous elections in the country have been rigged by the ruling party.

    • rig the market
    • to make the price of shares go up or down in order to make a profit

    • rigging /"rIg.IN/ noun
    • [U]
    • when a vote or result,
    • etc. is rigged:
    • ballot rigging
    • Opposition parties have protested over alleged vote rigging in the election.
    • See also rigging at rig (FIX IN PLACE).
  22. fracture /"fr{k.tS@r/ US/-tS@`/ verb [I or T]
    • 1 If something hard, such as a bone, fractures or is fractured, it cracks or breaks:
    • She fractured her skull in the accident.
    • Two of her ribs fractured when she was thrown from her horse.
    • A fractured pipe at a steelworks has leaked 20 tons of oil into the Severn estuary.

    • 2 FORMAL
    • to divide an organization or society, or (of an organization or society) to be divided:
    • Intense disagreement over economic policy risks fracturing the coalition government.
  23. wield /wi:ld/ verb [T]
    • 1 to hold a weapon or tool and look asif you are going to use it:
    • She was confronted by a man wielding a knife.
    • 2 wield influence/power, etc. tohave a lot of influence or power over other people:
    • He still wields enormous influence within the party.
  24. decree /dI"kri:/ noun [C or U] FORMAL
    • an official statement that something must happen:
    • The decree stopped short of a full declaration of independence.
    • More than 200 people were freed by military decree.

    • decree /dI"kri:/ verb[T]
    • They decreed an end to discrimination on grounds of age.
    • [+ that] The local council has decreed that the hospital should close.
  25. rampage /r{m"peIdZ/ verb [I]
    • to go through an area making a lot of noise and causing damage:
    • The demonstratorsrampaged through the town, smashing windows and setting fire to cars.
    • Several villages weredestroyed by rampaging soldiers.
    • rampage/"r{m.peIdZ/ noun[C or U]
    • violent and usually wildbehaviour: Rioters went ona/the rampage through the city.
  26. suffuse /s@"fju:z/ verb
    • [T often passive] LITERARY
    • to spread through or oversomething completely:
    • His voice was low andsuffused with passion.
  27. exacerbate verb

    • to make something which isalready bad worse:
    • This attack willexacerbate the already tense relations between the two communities.
  28. mitigate verb [T]

    • to make something lessharmful, unpleasant or bad:
    • It is unclear how tomitigate the effects of tourism on the island.
  29. shabby (BAD CONDITION)
    • looking old and in badcondition because of long use or lack of care:
    • He wore a shabby oldovercoat.
    • Her home is a rentedone-bedroom flat in a shabby part of town.
    • The refugees wereshabby (= woreold clothes in bad condition) and hungry.
  30. flunkey (ALSO flunky) OLD-FASHIONED
    a male servant wearing a uniform
  31. nemesis /"nem.@.sIs/ noun
    [C] plural
    nemeses LITERARY
    • 1 Someone's nemesis is a person orthing that is very difficult for them to defeat.
    • 2 (a cause of) punishment or defeatthat is deserved and cannot be avoided:
    • The tax increases proved to be the President's politicalnemesis at the following election.
  32. menace /"men.Is/ noun
    • 1 [C usually singular] something that is likely to cause harm:
    • Drunk drivers are a menace to everyone.
    • Dogs running loose are a public menace. the menace of industrial pollution
    • 2 [U] adangerous quality that makes you think someone is going to do something bad:
    • He had a slight air of menace which I found unsettling.
    • He spoke with a hint of menace.
  33. linger verb [I]

    • to take a long time toleave or disappear:
    • After the play hadfinished, we lingered for a while in the bar hoping to catch sight of theactors.
    • The smell from thefire still lingered days later.It's impossible toforget such horrific events - they linger (on) in the memory forever.
    • lingering /"lIN.g@r.IN/ US/-g@`.IN/adjective [before noun]
    • lasting a long time: She gave him a long,lingering kiss.
    • She's says she'sstopped seeing him, but I still have lingering doubts.
    • The defeat ends anylingering hopes she might have had of winning the championship.
  34. instil UK (-ll-), US instill /In"stIl/ verb
    • to put a feeling, idea orprinciple gradually into someone's mind, so that it has a strong influence on the way they think or behave:
    • It is part of ateacher's job to instil confidence in/into his or her students.
  35. bland adjective USUALLY DISAPPROVING

    • lacking a strong taste orcharacter or lacking in interest or energy:
    • I find chicken alittle bland.Pop music these daysis so bland.
  36. pin (PREVENT MOVEMENT) /pIn/ verb
    [T + adverb or
    preposition] -nn-

    • to force someone orsomething to stay in a particular place by putting weight on them:
    • She was pinned (down)under a pile of rubble.
    • A huge guy leapt outat Chris and pinned him (up) against the wall.
  37. badge
    • a small piece of metal,plastic, cloth, etc., with words or a picture on it, that is pinned or sewn toyour clothing, often to show your support for a political organization orbelief, or your rank, or membership of a group, etc:
    • Everyone at theconference wore a badge with their name on.
    • bea badge of sthto be something whichshows that you have achieved a particular thing:
    • For Tony, owning abig car was a badge of success.
  38. mastermind
    • to plan a difficultactivity, often a crime, in detail and make certain that it happenssuccessfully:
    • He's believed to havemasterminded the attacks
  39. inflict /In"flIkt/ verb
    • to force someone toexperience something very unpleasant:
    • These new bullets arecapable of inflicting massive injuries.
    • The sufferinginflicted on these children was unimaginable.
  40. faux /f@U/ US
    /foU/
    adjective [before noun]

    • not real, but made to lookor seem real; false:
    • faux fur a faux-brick wall
  41. defy /dI"faI/ verb
    [T]
    • 1 to refuse to obey, or to act or beagainst, a person, decision, law, situation, etc:
    • children openly defying their teachers
    • A few workers have defied the majority decision and goneinto work despite the strike.
    • The fact that aircraft don't fall out of the sky alwaysseems to me to defy (= act against) the lawof gravity.
    • A forest fire raging in the south of France is defying (= is not changed by) all attempts to control it.
    • 2 defybelief/description/explanation to be extreme or very strange and thereforeimpossible to believe/describe/explain:
    • The chaos at the airport defies description.
    • 3 defy sb to do sth totell someone to do something that you think will be impossible:
    • I defy you to prove your accusations.
    • I defy you to tell where I've painted over the scratch onmy car.
  42. defiance
    • when you refuse to obeysomeone or something:
    • The demonstration is apointless act/gesture of defiance against the government.
    • In defiance of the ceasefire,rebel troops are again firing on the capital.
  43. defiant /dI"faI.@nt/ adjective

    • 1 proudly refusing to obey authority:a defiant attitude/gesture
    • The protesters blocking the entrance to the officesremained defiant this morning.
    • 2 not willing to accept criticism ordisapproval:
    • The Prime Minister was in defiant mood in the House ofCommons yesterday.
    • defiantly /dI"faI.@nt.li/ adverb
    • A group of prisonersstood on the roof, defiantly waving banners and throwing stones.
  44. within /wI"DIn/ preposition, adverb
    • inside or not beyond an area or period of time:
    • Two-thirds of Californians live within 15 miles of thecoast.
    • In 1992 cross-border controls within the EU were dismantled.
    • For orders within the UK, please enclose £2.50 for post andpacking.
    • The resort lies within easy reach of (=not far from) the ski slopes.
    • We recommend that this wine should be consumed within sixmonths.
    • Within hours of the tragedy happening, an emergency rescueteam had been assembled.
    • The tickets should reach you within the week (=before the end of this week).
    • He's very highly regarded within his profession.
    • She managed to complete her last film well within budget.
    • The target was now within range and so she took aim andfired.
    • He could sense that his goal was within reach (=it could be reached).
    • The cathedral spire was now within sight (=it could be seen).
    • I was acting within the law (=legally).
    • We came within five points of beating them (=We would have beaten them if we had had five more points).
  45. from within
    • by the people who belong to an organization and not by people from outside it:
    • If things are to change, the company must be reformed fromwithin.
  46. decay /dI"keI/ verb [I or T]
    • to(cause something to) become gradually damaged, worse or less:
    • Sugar makes your teeth decay.
    • The role of the extended family has been decaying for sometime.
    • Pollution has decayed the surface of the stonework on thefront of the cathedral. the smell of decaying meat
    • decay /dI"keI/ noun [U]
    • whensomething decays:environmental/industrial/moral/urban decay dental/tooth decay
    • The buildings had started to fall into decay.
    • This industry has been in decay for some time.
  47. offence (CRIME), US USUALLY offense /@"fents/ noun [C] LEGAL
    • an illegal act; a crime:
    • a serious/minor offence a criminal/drink-driving offence
    • Driving without a licence is an offence.
    • He committed several serious offences.
    • It's the third time that he's been convicted ofa drug offence
  48. lexicon / noun [C] SPECIALIZED
    (alist of) all the words used in a particular language or subject, or adictionary
  49. mild-mannered / adjective
    • describes a person who is gentle and does not show extreme emotions:
    • a mild-mannered philosophy professor
  50. torment / verb [T]
    • to cause a person or animal to suffer:
    • The animals are tormented mercilessly by flies andmosquitoes.
    • The camera focused on a group of women whose faces weretormented by/with (= showed that they were suffering)grief.
    • It tormented me (= caused me toworry) all day - did I remember to lock the door when I left the house?
  51. correspondent / noun [C] FORMAL
    • someonewho writes letters:I'm a terrible correspondent - I never seem to get the timeto write.
    • correspondent / noun [C]
    • a person employed by a newspaper, a television station, etc. to report on aparticular subject or send reports from a foreign country:
    • a war correspondent the education correspondent for the Guardian
  52. satire
    • a way of criticizing people or ideas in a humorous way, or a piece of writing orplay which uses this style:
    • political satire
    • Her play was a biting/cruel satire on life in the80s.
  53. squeeze (MOVE)
    /skwi:z/ verb [I
    + adverb or preposition]
    • toget in, through, under, etc. with difficulty:
    • She squeezed through the crowd and found a seat atthe front.
    • They managed to squeeze under the fence and get intothe festival without paying. squeeze
    • (sb/sth) in/squeeze (sb/sth)into sth(SPACE) phrasal verb [M] to succeed in getting someone or something into a small space or object, often bypushing or forcing:
    • The car's quite full, but we could manage to squeeze anothercouple of people in.I must have put on a lot of weight over Christmas because Ican only just squeeze into my jeans.
  54. cacophony
    • an unpleasant mixture of loud sounds:
    • What a cacophony!
    • As we entered the farmyard we were met with acacophony of animal sounds.
  55. pilgrim / noun [C]
    • a person who makes a journey, which is often long and difficult, to a special place for religious reasons
    • pilgrimage /"pIl.grI.mIdZ/ noun [Cor U]
    • 1 aspecial journey made by a pilgrim: Most Muslims try to make a pilgrimage/go on apilgrimage to Mecca at least once in their life.
    • 2 ajourney to a place which is considered special, and which you visit to showyour respect:For many football fans, the national ground is a place ofpilgrimage.
  56. munificent /mju:"nIf.I.s@nt/ adjective FORMAL
    • very generous with money:
    • A former student has donated a munificent sum of money to the college.
    • munificence / noun [U] FORMAL
    • I thanked them for their munificence.
  57. thwart / verb [T]
    • to stop something from happening or someone from doing something:
    • My holiday plans have been thwarted by the strike.

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