Bio Topic 2
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Bio Topic 2
Life and Evolution
Is the science dealing with living organisms
What are the 7 characteristics of all living things?
Made up of organic molecules
Composed of cells
Grow and reproduce
Use energy (metabolize)
Respond to their environment
Evolve and have adaptive traits
What are the 4 basic classes of organic molecules?
Carbohydrates, Lipids, Protiens, Nucleic Acids
What are Carbohydrates commonly known as?
Sugars and startches
What is the function of carbohydrates?
Provide energy to cells
What elements are carbohydrates composed of?
Carbon, Oxygen, Hydrogen
What are monosaccharides?
Type of carbohydrate. Simple sugars, smallest molecular units of carbs. ex) Glucose, Fructose
What are disaccharides?
type of carbohydrate made of 2 monosaccarides covalently bonded. ex) sucrose
What are polysaccharides?
complex carbohydrates that form when many monosaccharides join together in long chains. ex) glycogen
What are lipids commonly known as?
Do lipids dissolve in water? Are they polar?
Lipids do not dissolve in water and are nonpolar
What are triglycerides?
type of lipid, made up of glycerol and 3 fatty acids.
Triglycerides can be either _________ or _________
saturated or unsaturated
What is the difference between saturated and unsaturated?
Saturated have only single covalent bonds, unsaturated have double. saturated are solid, like butter, unsaturated are liquid, like olive oil
What are phospholipids?
type of lipid made up of glycerol bonded to 2 fatty acids and a phosphate group.
what do phospholipids do?
form plasma membranes
Phospholipds have _____ heads and _______ tails.
what are steroids?
type of lipid, made up of 4 carbon rings with various molecules
give two examples of monosaccharides
give an example of a disaccharide
polysaccarides usually function to _____________ or _____________
store energy or provide structure
give 2 examples of polysaccharides that store energy
Triglycerides are made of one molecule of ________ and 3 ________
glycerol, fatty acids
Phospholipids are made of one molecule of ________ and ___ fatty acids, a phosphate group, and a variable group.
Steriods are made of 4 _________ attached to various molecules
phospholipids function as
plasma membranes of cells
What is a protien??
A polymer made of one or more chains of amino acids
what are amino acids?
the building blocks of protiens.
Some amino acids are _________ amino acids and some are ________ amino acids
essential, non essential
what are amino acids made of
a carbom bound to a hydrogen, an amino group, an acidic carboxyl group, and a side chain.
what are the 4 different structures of protiens?
primary, secondary, tertiary, quaternary
what are the functions of protien?
structural, transportation, movement, chemical reactions
The two nucleic acids in our cells are
DNA and RNA
what is DNA?
what are nucleotides
the building blocks of nucleic acids
what are the bases of DNA?
Adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine
what is the sugar of DNA?
What is RNA?
ribonucleic acid. single stranded
what are the bases of RNA?
adenine, guanine, cytosine, uracil
what is the sugar of RNA
what is ATP?
Adenosine triphosphate. The energy currency of cells. Energy containing molecule
what are the 3 points of the cell theory?
1. cells are the smallest units of life
2. cells make up all living things
3. cells come from other cells
what are the two basic types of cells
eukaryotic and prokaryotic
what are prokaryotic cells?
small, simple cells. limited to bacteria and archaea
what are eukaryotic cells?
the cells of plants and animals, has a nucleus and organelles.
the sum of all the chemical reactions within an organsism
metabolic reactions can be _______ or ________
metabolic or anabolic
What is anabolism?
assembly of simple molecules into more complex molecules. (requires energy)
what is catabolism?
breaking down of complex molecules into more simple ones. (release of energy) polymers into monomers
what is a substrate?
the particular substance that an enzyme works on
a condition of dynamic equilibrium
what are the two feedback mechanisms?
negative and positive
what is a negative feedback mechanism?
corrective measures that slow or reverse a variation from the normal value of a factor, such as body temp, and return the factor to its normal level.
a change in variable triggers a control mechanism to counteract change
what is a positive feedback mechanism?
a change in variable triggers control mechanism to amplify, rather than reverse, the change
give an example of a positive feedback mechanism
give an example of a negative feedback mechanism
body temperature...sweating, shivering
how do receptors, control centers, and effectors play a part in feedback mechanisms?
receptor (sensor) detects the change. the control center determines the factors normal level, and sends appropriate response info to the effector.
effector carries out the response.