Integumentary Sys

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teloff
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36148
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Integumentary Sys
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2010-09-27 21:10:40
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Integumentary System Skin
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Integumentary System Chap 5; Pathology & Oncology words
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  1. Lesions
    Areas of tissue that have been pathologically altered by injury, wound or infection
  2. Localized lesions
    Lesions that affect tissue over an area of a definite size
  3. Systemic Lesions
    Lesions that are widely spread throughout the body
  4. Primary Skin Lesions
    The initial reaction to pathologically altered tissue and may be flat or elevated
  5. Secondary Skin Lesions
    Changes that take place in the primary lesions due to infection, scratching, trauma or various stages of a disease
  6. Macule
    Primary, flat lesion of any size
  7. Papule
    • Primary lesion;
    • Solid, elevated
    • Less than 1 cm in diameter
    • May or may not be pigmented
  8. Nodule
    • Primary lesion;
    • Palpable, circumscribed
    • Larger and deeper than a papule (0.6-2 cm in diameter);
    • Extends into the dermal area
  9. Tumor
    • Primary lesion;
    • Solid, elavated
    • Larger than 2 cm in diameter
    • Extends into the dermal area
  10. Wheal
    • Primary lesion;
    • Elevated, firm, rounded
    • Localized skin edema (swelling)
    • Varies in size, shape and color;
    • Paler in the center than its surrounding edges;
    • Accompanied by itching
  11. Vesicle
    • Primary lesion;
    • Elevated, circumscribed, fluid-filled
    • Less than 0.5 cm in diameter
  12. Pustule
    • Primary lesion;
    • Small, raised, circumscribed lesion
    • Contains pus;
    • Usually less than 1 cm in diameter
  13. Bulla
    • Primary lesion;
    • A fluid filled vesicle or blister
    • Larger than 1 cm in diameter
  14. Excoriations
    • Secondary Lesion;
    • Linear scratch marks or traumatized abrasions of the epidermis
  15. Fissure
    • Secondary Lesion;
    • Small slit or crack like sore
    • Extends into the dermal layer;
    • Could be caused by continuous inflammation and drying
  16. Ulcer
    • Secondary Lesion;
    • An open sore or lesion
    • Extends to the dermis
    • Usually heals with scarring
  17. Depressed Lesions
    Secondary leasions caused by loss of skin surface
  18. Burns - 4 causes
    • Thermal
    • Chemical
    • Electrical
    • Radioactive
  19. First degree burns
    Superficial; least serious type of burn; injures only the top layer of skin (epidermis)
  20. Thermal Burn
    First degree burn caused by dry or moist heat
  21. Sunburn
    First degree burn caused by overexposure to the sun
  22. Erythema
    Skin redness; localized affect of a first degree burn
  23. Hyperesthesia
    Acute sensitivity to sensory stimuli (ie Touch, Heat or Cold); localized affect of a first degree burn
  24. Second-degree burn
    Partial-thickness burn; Deep burns that damage both the epidermis and part of the dermis.
  25. Second degree burn symptoms
    Mimic first degree burn symptoms (sensitivity to heat, cold or touch) but may include fluid filled blisters (vesicles or bullae).
  26. Third Degree Burns
    Full thickness burn; Epidermis and dermis are destroyed and some of the underlying connective tissue is damaged, leaving the skin waxy and charred with insensitivity to touch. Underlying bones, muscles and tendons may also be damaged
  27. Dermatoplasty
    Skin grafting; commonly required for third degree burns
  28. Rule of Nines
    • Formula for estimating the percentage of the body surface affected by burns.
    • Assigns values of 9% or 18% of surface areas to specific regions.
    • Formula is modified for infants and children because of the proportionately larger head size.
  29. Reason for determining the percentage of body surface affected by burns
    IV fluids for hydration are required to replace fluids lost from tissue damage
  30. Neoplasms
    Adnormal growths of new tissue that are classified as benign or malignant
  31. Benign Neoplasms
    Noncancerous growths composed of the same type of cells as the tissue in which they are growing
  32. Malignant Neoplasms
    Composed of cells that are invasive and spread to remote regions of the body.
  33. Metastasis
    Malignant cells from the primary tumor enter the blood and lymph vessels and travel to remote regions of the body to form secondary tumor sites.
  34. Cancer
    The presence of a malignant growth (tumor).
  35. Abscess
    localized collection of pus at the site of an infection.
  36. Furuncle or boil
    a localized abscess that originates in a hair follicle
  37. Carbuncle
    a cluster of furuncles in the subcutaneous tissue with connective channels to the skin surface
  38. Acne
    inflammatory disease of the sebaceous glands and hair follicles of the skin.
  39. Alopecia
    Partial or complete loss of hair resulting from normal aging, an endocrine disorder, a drug interaction, anticancer medication or a skin disease; commonly called baldness.
  40. Bowen disease
    Form of intraepidermal carcinoma (squamous cell) characterized by red-brown scaly or crusted lesions that resemble a patch of psoriasis or dermatitis; als called Bowen precancerous dermatosis.
  41. Cellulitis
    Diffuse (widespread), acute infection of the skin and subcutaneous tissue. Characterized by a light glossy appearance of the skin, localized heat, redness, swelling and occasionally fever, malaise and chills.
  42. Chloasma
    Pigmentary skin discoloration usually occuring in yellowish brown patches or spots.
  43. Comedo
    Typical small skin lesion of acne vulgaris caused by accumulation of keratin, bacteria, and dried sebum plugging an excretory duct of the skin.
  44. Dermatomycosis
    Infection of the skin caused by fungi. A common type of dermatomycosis is called ringworm.
  45. myc
    fungus
  46. Ecchymosis
    Skin discoloration consisting of a large, irregularly formed hemorrhagic area with colors changing from blue-black to greenish brown or yellow; commonly called a bruise.
  47. Eczema
    Chronic skin inflammation characterized by erytherma, papules, vesicles, pustules, scales, crusts, scabs and possibly itching. Symptoms or exzema may occur alone or in combination.
  48. Erythema
    Redness of the skin caused by swelling of the capillaries. Examples are mild sunburn or nervous blushing.
  49. Eschar
    Damaged tissue following a severe burn.
  50. Impetigo
    Bacterial skin infection characterized by isolated pustules that become crusted and rupture.
  51. Keratosis
    Thickened area of the epidermis or any horny growth on the skin (such as a callus or wart)
  52. kerat
    horny tissue, hard; cornea
  53. Lentigo
    Small brown macules, especially on the face and arms, brought on by sun exposre, usually in a middle-aged or older person. These pigmented lesions are benign.
  54. Pallor
    Unnatural paleness or absense of color in the skin.
  55. Pediculosis
    Infestation with lice, transmitted by personal contact or common use of brushes, combs or headgear.
  56. ROOT WORD
    pedicul
    lice
  57. Petechia
    Minute, pinpoint hemorrhage under the skin. A smaller version of an ecchymosis.
  58. Pressure Ulcer
    Skin ulceration caused by prolonged pressure from lying in one position that prevents blood flow to the tissues, usually in bedridden patients; also known as decubitus ulcer. Most commonly found in skin overlying a bony projection, such as the hip, ankle, heel, shoulder and elbow.
  59. Pruritus
    Intense itching
  60. Psoriasis
    Chronic skin disease characterized by circumscribed red patcdhes covered by thick, dry, silvery, adherent scales caused by excessive development of the basal layer of the epidermis. Most commonly found on the scalp, knees, elbows, umbilicus, and genitalia.
  61. Purpura
    Any of several bleeding disorders characterized by hemorrhage into the tissues, particularly beneath the skin or mucous membranes, producing ecchymoses or petechiae.
  62. Scabies
    Contagious skin disease transmitted by the itch mite, commonly through sexual contact. Common areas: the axillae, genitalia, inner aspect of the thighs and areas between the fingers.
  63. Tinea
    Fungal skin infection whose name commonly indicates the body part affeted; also called ringworm.
  64. Urticaria
    Allergic reaction of the skin characterized by the eruption of pale red, elevated patches called wheals or hives.
  65. Verruca
    Epidermal growth caused by a virus; also known as warts. Types include plantar warts, juvenile warts and verereal warts. Can be removed by cryosurgery, electrocautery or acids; may regrow if the virus remains in the skin.
  66. Vitiligo
    Localized loss of skin pigmentation characterized by milk-white patches.
  67. SKIN TEST - Intradermal
    Identifies suspected allergens by subcutaneously injecting small amounts of extracts of the suspected allergens and observing hte skin for a subsequent reaction.
  68. SKIN TEST - Patch
    Skin test that identifies susptected allergens by topical application of the substance to be tested (such as food, pollen and animal fur), usually on the forearm and observing for a subseequent reaction.
  69. SKIN TEST - Scratch (prick)
    Skin test that identifies suspected allergens by placing a small quantity of the suspected allergen on a lightly scratched area of the skin.
  70. Skin Test
    Any test in which a suspected allergen or sensitizer is applied to or injected into the skin to determine the patient's sensitivity to it.
  71. Biopsy
    Representative tissue sample removed from a body site for microscopic examination.
  72. BIOPSY - Needle
    Removal of a small tissue sample for examination using a hollow needle, usually attached to a syringe.
  73. BIOPSY - Punch
    Removal of a small core of tissue using a hollow punch.
  74. BIOPSY - Shave
    Removal of a small slice of tissue by using surgical blade. Used for elevated lesions.
  75. BIOPSY - Frozen Section (FS)
    Ultrathin slice of tissue from a frozen specimen for immediate pathological examination. Commonly used for rapid diagnosis of malignancy after the patient has been anesthetized to determine treatment option.
  76. Chemical Peel
    Chemical removal of the outer layers of the skin to treat acne scarring and general keratoses; also known as chemabrasion. Also used for cosmetic purposes to remove fine wrinkles on the face.
  77. Debridement
    Removal of necrotized tissue from a wound by surgical excision, enzymes or chemical agents. Used to promote healing and prevent infection.
  78. Dermabrasion
    Rubbing (abrasion) using wire brushes or sandpaper to mechanically scrape away (abrade) the epidermis. Commonly used to remove acne scars, tattoos, and scar tissue.
  79. Fulguration
    Tissue destruction by means of high frequency electric current; also called electrodesiccation.
  80. Cryosurgery
    Use of subfreezing temperature (commonly liquid nitrogen) to destroy or eliminate abnormal tissue, such as tumors, warts and unwanted, cancerours or infected tissue.
  81. Incision and drainage (I&D)
    Process of cutting through a lesion such as an abscess and draining its contents.
  82. Skin Graft
    Surgical procedure to transplant healthy tissue by applying it to an injured site. Human, animal or artificial skin can be used to provide a temporary covering or permanent layer of skin over a wound or burn.
  83. SKIN GRAFT - Allograft
    Transplantation of healthy tissue from one person to another person; also called homograft
  84. SKIN GRAFT - Autograft
    Transplantation of healthy tissue from one site to another site in the same individual.
  85. SKIN GRAFT - Synthetic
    Transplantation of artificial skin produced from collagen fibers arranged in a lattice pattern. The recipients body does not reject synthetic skin (produced artificially) and healing skin grows into it as the graft gradually disintegrates.
  86. SKIN GRAFT - Xenograft
    Transplantation (dermis only) from a foreign donor (usually a pig) and transferred to a human; also called heterograft. A xenograft is used as a temporary graft to protect the patient against infection and fluid loss.
  87. TNM System of Staging
    Used to identify the invasiveness of the malignant tumor.
  88. T (Tumor) number indicates:
    Size and invasiveness of the primary tumor.
  89. N (Node) number indicates:
    Indicates the amount of nodal involvement
  90. M (Matastasis) number indicates:
    Indicates the spreading of teh primary tumor to remote regions of the body.
  91. Basal Cell Carcinoma
    • Most common type of skin cancer
    • Malignancy of the basal layer of the epidermis or hair follicles
    • Commonly caused by overexposure to sunlight
    • Locally invasive; rarely matastisize
    • Most prevalent in blond, fair-skinned men
    • Most common malignant tumor affecting white people
  92. Squamous Cell Carcinoma
    • Skin that undergoes pathological hardening (keratinizing)
    • Invasive tumor with potential for metastasis
    • Most commonly found in fair-skinned white men over 60
  93. 2 Types of Squamous Cell Carcinoma
    • 1. In Situ - comfined to the original site
    • 2. Invasive - penetrated surrounding tissue
  94. Malignant Melanoma
    • A neoplasm composed of abnormal melanocytes
    • Commonly starts as a darkly pigmented tumor
    • Relatively rare but most lethal
    • Incidence is growing more quickly than any other type of tumor
    • Can matastasize extensively to the liver, lungs or brain
  95. TUMOR GRADING
    Grade 1
    • Closely resembles original tissue
    • Retains some specialized function
  96. TUMOR GRADING
    Grade 2
    • Less resemblance to original tissue
    • More variation in shape and size
    • Increased mitoses
  97. TUMOR GRADING
    Grade 3
    • Only remotely resembles original tissue
    • Marked variation in shape and size of tumor
    • Greatly increased mitoses
  98. TUMOR GRADING
    Grade 4
    • Little or no resemblance to original tissue
    • Extreme variation in size and shape of tumor cells
  99. TNM SYSTEM - T0
    No evidence of tumor
  100. TNM SYSTEM - Tis
    • Stage 1
    • Tumor is in a defined location and shows no invasion into surrounding tissue
  101. TNM SYSTEM - T1, T2, T3, T4
    Stage 2; T1 small with minimal invasion; T4 large with extensive local invasion into surrounding organs and tissues
  102. TNM SYSTEM - N0
    Regional lymph nodes show no abnormalities
  103. TNM SYSTEM - N1, N2, N3, N4
    Stage 3; Degree of lymph node involvement and spread to regional lymph nodes; N1 is less involvement w/ minimal spreading and N4 is more involvement w/ extensive spreading
  104. TNM SYSTEM - M0
    No evidence of metastasis
  105. TNM SYSTEM - M1
    Stage 4; Indicates metastasis

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