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the God of Israel. The term means “the Lord” in Hebrew and is used by
many Jews as a substitute for God’s proper name, which they will not speak
aloud out of reverence for the holiness of God’s name.
– a story that explains origins (of a name, a
– a reference or term that
is chronologically out of place
forefather or foremother, earlier member of a family line.
the area now called the “Middle East”
Ancient Near East –
the portrayal of something
other than a human being in human form or terms.
the “deuterocanonical books”, books included in LXX but not in the Tanakh, included in Roman Catholic and Orthodox Bibles but not in Protestant Bible.
– the empire that conquered the northern kingdom and exiled thousands
in 722 BCE
– the means of restoring a relationship damaged or severed by sin
Before the common era, i.e. before Jesus was born if you dated his birth in
the year #1.
– Phrase often used
to refer to Abraham’s near sacrifice of his son.
The Binding of Isaac
Latin circa meaning “around,” refers to
dates that are only an approximation.
the land that was settled by the Israelites and Philistines around
the 1200’s BCE
the official list of writings that are considered “scripture.”
common era, also known as AD, i.e. the time after Jesus birth if you dated it
in the year #1.
another name for Babylon.
– the practice of removing the foreskin from the penis. In Jewish custom it’s a sign of God’s covenant with Abraham done on a baby boy’s 8th day.
- a slave-woman who is a lower-status wife. Her main function is to bear sons for her “husband.”
– a vow, promise, agreement, treaty, contract; a binding agreement
between two parties, such as a treaty between kings/nations. (Often on of the
parties is considered superior or more powerful than the other.)
– a term used by scholars to refer to religious
practices and organization of a religion. (In this usage it does not have
– The oldest existing Bible manuscripts along with other
writings that were discovered in the desert in 1947.
Dead Sea Scrolls
– the 10 commandments.
– term meaning “the god” or “God.”
– generations of offspring
living after their ancenster.
- literarally means “second canon”, books included in
LXX but not in the Tanak, included in Roman Catholic and Orthodox Bibles but
not in Protestant Bible.
– the theory that the Pentateuch is a compilation of
several earlier documents.
– word meaning “god”; the chief god of Canaan, and sometimes used to
refer to the God of Israel.
– Hebrew word meaning “God” or “gods”
– The Babylonian creation myth.
- one of the sons of Joseph; the Northern Kingdom, also called Israel
– “out of nothing”
- literally means
“going out” it refers to the Israelites going out from Egypt where they had
– Inventor of the moveable type printing press in 1453,
making books more affordable and accessible.
– slave of Sarah, mother of Ishmael
– a Jewish rendering of God’s divine name Yahweh, means “the name.”
– the Old Testament or the Tanak - a term favored by Jewish and Christian scholars.
- the original language of most of the Old Testament/Tanakh; another name for the Israelites
- the name of the mountain where Moses saw the burning bush, received
the law, also called Mt. Sinai
- presence, i.e. God’s presence in the material world.
 not to be confused with” imminence” meaning “occuring at any
moment” or “eminence” meaning “importance.”
– son of Abraham and Hagar
– son of Abraham and Sarah, father of Jacob
- another name for the patriarch Jacob; the nation made up of the 12 tribes which, according to tradition, were descended from Jacob; the Northern Kingdom, also called Ephraim.
- the capital city of a united Israel, and later the capital of the nation of Judah
- a term derived from the word “Judean” it originally referred to Judean descendants of Israel
in the Persian period and all of their descendants until today
- one of the 12 sons of Jacob; one of the 12 tribes of Israel; the Southern Kingdom and only Jewish nation existing after 722 BCE
and existing as a province after 587.
- the practice of a childless widow marrying her
husband’s brother or nearest kin to have a child for her dead husband.
– an Israelite tribe that functioned as priests.
- Abbreviation for the Septuagint.
- the way God’s divine name is often rendered in English translation.
- breadlike substance sent by God to feed the Israelites in the Sinai wilderness.
– The supreme god of the Babylonians.
- literally “the land between the rivers” is the land
through which the Tigris and Euphrates rivers flow (Iraq and part of Syria
today), land of the Sumerians, the Akkadians, the Assyrians, and the Babylonians.
– 1) In common usage, it means something that isn’t true; 2) In academic use, it means something
that expresses the deep truths of a culture, without necessarily being factual.
– The kingdom made up of the 10 northern tribes. Israel, Ephraim, 922-722 BCE.
– The kingdom made up of the 10 northern tribes. Israel,
Ephraim, 922-722 BCE.
– the means of transmitting stories from generation to
generation by word of mouth.
– A holiday commemorating
God’s liberation of the Hebrew slaves from Egypt. It continues to be one of the
most important Jewish holidays.
– literally “father ruler” refers to a man who is head
of his family. In Jewish tradition
it refers to the male ancestors in Genesis, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob.
Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy literally means “five scrolls”, the first fivebooks of the Bible
– title for the king of Egypt
– The place iwhere the Dead Sea Scrolls were discovered with ancient
– To give something in exchange, for example a substitute offering or money to free a slave.
– the 7th day of the week (Saturday) commanded by God as the
day of rest.
- the capital of the Northern Kingdom
- the translation of the Hebrew Bible into the Greek language by Jews in Egypt beginning around 250 BCE. Includes the deuterocanonical books. The preferred Bible version of the early Christians.
- the realm of the all the dead, called “Hades” by the Greeks. Not a place of punishment per se.
– a place of worship, not necessarily a building
- the name of the mountain where Moses saw the burning bush, received
the law, also called Mt. Horeb
- the desert region between Egypt, Canaan,
and Arabia where, according to tradition, the Israelites lived for 40 years.
- the kingdom made up of the tribe of
Judah, 922-587 BCE.
– a tent of worship. After the Jerusalem Temple was build it was placed in the temple.
- the Jewish name
for the Old Testament based the Hebrew words for Law - Prophets - Writings
- a quality of God focusing on how God is beyond limits and space.
- Hebrew word
for “law” or “instruction” referring to the first five books of the Bible
– a king or nation that is in a relationship of submission to another king or nation
– the desert (both flat and mountainous)
wilderness (inthe Hebrew Bible)
- “the personal name of Israel’s God.” Jews will not speak this name aloud out of reverence for the holiness of the name of God.