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Definition of Pharmaceutical Care:
“The responsible provision of drug therapy for the purpose of achieving definite outcomes that improve a patient’s quality of life.”
What study defined pharmaceutical care?
- Hepler & Strand 1989
- Opportunities and Responsibilities in pharmaceutical care
Name 3 causes of suboptimal care
Acts of Commission
Acts of Omission
Acts of Commission examples of suboptimal care are:
- wrong dosing
- wrong drug
prescribing, dispensing, & medication administration errors
Idiosyncratic causes of suboptimal care are:
adverse reactions to meds
Acts of Omission examples of suboptimal care are:
absence of individual / profession to assume responsibility for pt. medication outcomes
ex: 90 day follow up on a new depression medication
In 1765 this man proposed a split between medicine and pharmacy.
He was a physician and pharmacist
What was the first school of pharmacy
When was it founded?
1821 Philadelphia College of Pharmacy
Who is considered the 'father of American pharmacy'?
- first professor of practical pharmacy
- editor of American Journal of Pharmacy
- started APhA - 1852
What university offered the first 6 year PharmD degree
Univ of Southern California
Tell the history of pharmacy in America in your own words...
- frequent dramatic changes in practice
- spurred by advances in technology, by economic alterations, and by legislation.
- Between 1860 - 1990s, the profession’s orientation has moved from manufacturing, to compounding, to distribution, to a more clinical role and finally to pharmaceutical care
- Often initiated by others outside of the profession
What is central fill?
one automated location takes and fills orders for many locations which are then mailed to pts
mostly maintenance meds
What is remote medication order processing?
prescriptions are read and processed at another location using computers
scanned scrips read at off location sites, typed, and filled if necessary and sent back to original location
Summarize the 6 goals of the 2015 ASHP initiative
- Increase extent that:
- 1) health-system pharmacists help inpatients achieve the best use of medications
- 2) health-system pharmacists help non-hospitalized patients achieve the best use of medications
- 3) health-system pharmacists actively apply evidence-based methods to improve medication therapy
- 4) pharmacy depts have a significant role in improving the safety of medication use
- 5) health systems apply technology to improve safety
- 6) pharmacy depts can engage in public health initiatives in their communities
Site examples of 2015 goal 1
increase extent that pharmacists help inpatients achieve best use of medications:
- obtain medical histories
- medication reconciliation
- ~ dif. btwn home and hospital medications
- medication monitoring
- provide discharge medication counseling
Site examples of 2015 goal 2 increase extent that pharmacists help non-hospitalized patients achieve best use of medications:
manage medication therapy in collaborations w/ other health care professionals
provide medication counseling
Site examples of 2015 goal 3 increase extent that pharmacists increase the use of evidence-based methods to improve medication therapy:
provision of care using evidence-based medicine
involved in the development and use of drug-therapy protocols
Site examples of 2015 goal 4 increase extent that health care system pharmacy departments improve the safety of medication use:
routine medication orders reviewed by pharmacist prior to administration of 1st dose
certified pharmacy technicians
ASHP-accredited residency training
Site examples of 2015 goal 5 increase extent that health systems apply technology effectively to improve the safety of medication use:
- use of bar coded medication
- use of bar coded medication administration to patients
- use of computerized prescriber order entry system
Site examples of 2015 goal 6 increase extent that pharmacy departments engage in public health initiatives on behalf of their communities
- brown bag
- diabetes clinics
- smoking cessation
- -- ashville project --
doing the very best for the patient within the context of pharmaceutical care
do no harm
list some values and behaviors necessary to be a professional in pharmacy
- altruism---concern for welfare of others
- equality---having the same rights, privileges or status
- freedom---capacity to exercise choice
- justice---upholding moral and legal principles
- truth---faithfulness to fact or realityhuman dignity---inherent worth and uniqueness of an individual
why should pharmacists be making >$100,000 per year?
- Economic argument
- Health Outcome argument
- Profession argument
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