Molecular biology

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alicia113
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36178
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Molecular biology
Updated:
2010-09-20 22:50:26
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molecular biology
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molecular biology study cards
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  1. What is a ribose
    • Found in RNA
    • It is a sugar
  2. What is deoxyribose
    • Found in DNA
    • It is a sugar
  3. What is a purine
    • Guanine and adenine
    • Bicyclic
    • 2 rings
  4. What is a pyrimidine
    • Cytosine, thymine and unicile
    • Monocyclic
    • Only have 1 ring
  5. What is a nucleotide
    Phosphate, sugar and a base
  6. Nuclaic acid?
    DNA and RNA
  7. What is thymine?
    • Only Found in DNA
    • Matches with aidenine
  8. What is uricile
    • Only in RNA
    • Takes thymines spot
    • Mathes with aidenine
  9. mRNA?
    • Messenger RNA
    • Found in cytoplasm
    • Rough copy of polypeptide
  10. tRNA?
    • Transfer RNA
    • Found in ribosome
    • Gathers amino acids
  11. What happens in RNA processing
    • 5' and poly A tail are added to pre mRNA
    • Pieces of RNA get deleted
    • Finished mRNA leaves nucleues and enters cytoplasm
  12. What happens in protien synthesis?
    • Linking together of amino acids in sequence determined in sequence of nitrogen bases
    • *** poly A tail and 5' are added ****
    • how to make functional protiens
  13. What is DNA's function
    • Contains genetic coding
    • Used to control functions
    • Genetic instructions
    • To code the way protiens turn genes on or off
    • Used to make RNA and mRNA
  14. What is RNA's function?
    • Carries codes from nucleus to ribosome
    • Makes a copy strand of DNA
  15. DNA replication?
    • Seperates into 2 strands
    • Strands run in opposite directions
  16. What is a gene?
    • Section on DNA
    • sequence of nucleotides
  17. What is a protein?
    Sequence of amino acids
  18. What is mutagen?
    • Increases rate of mutation in body
    • Ie: radiation, UV rays
  19. What is a mutation?
    • Error in DNA strand
    • Ie nonesense mutation
  20. What is DNA exactly?
    • DNA is made from nuclaic acids
    • Also called a polynucleotide
    • 5' to 3' direction
    • Guanine, cytosine, aidenine and thymine
    • Double helix shape
    • Bases can be in any order
    • Two polynucleotides
  21. What is RNA exactly?
    • is made from nuclaic acids
    • Also called a polynucleotide
    • 5' to 3' direction
    • Guanine, cytosine, aidenine and uricile
    • Bases can be in any order
    • Single polynucleotide
  22. What is a codon?
    • Sequence of bases (3 bases)
    • AUG is start codon
    • Methinine is always start aminio acid
  23. What is anti codon ?
    • Matchin pair to codons
    • Found on tRNA (bottom)
  24. DNA's location?
    Nucleouse
  25. RNA's location?
    • mRNA, tRNA, RNA -> cytoplasm
    • Pre mRNA --> nucleouse
  26. Why must DNA replication occur?
    • Need a full set of genes to function correctly
    • Must exist in each cell so that genetics continoisly occurs
  27. What is DNA transcription used for?
    • For making protein --> to
    • Make polypeptide
  28. What is an amino acid?
    • 20 of them
    • Make chain links
    • Make up polypeptide
  29. What is a polypeptide?
    Link of amino acids held together by a peptide bond
  30. What is polymerase chain reaction?
    Invreases DNA molecules
  31. What is translation?
    Ribosome reads the mRNA messege and links amino acids to form a polypeptide
  32. ribosome?
    • In cytoplasm
    • DNA RNA
    • two part structure
    • Trabslates mRNA to amino acids
  33. What is albinism?
    • Genetic abnormailty in animals
    • Eyes skin and hair have no pigment
  34. What is cloning?
    Production of identical copies of molecules
  35. What is DNA fingerprinting?
    Using DNA fragments to identify a person
  36. What is base-pair substitution?
    • One pair is replaced by another in DNA strand
    • Makes diffrent amino acids
    • Can be bad
  37. What is a framshift mutation?
    • One or more bases are added Or deleted from DNA strand
    • Changes polypeptide strand
  38. _____ is the blueprint or master copy of information used to construct an organsim
    DNA
  39. _____ is made using DNA as a template also helps build the sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide
    mRNA
  40. ____ carries amino acids to the ribosome
    tRNA
  41. ______ is a copying process where 2 DNA molecules are formed from one
    DNA replication
  42. _____ builds an RNA copy of DNA nucleotide sequence, to carry to the ribosome
    Transcription
  43. _____ involves modifying the pre-mRNA strand in the nucleouse in preparation for its use by the ribosome in protein synthesis
    RNA processing
  44. ____ is the first amino acid in a polypeptide chain
    Methina
  45. ___ is the process of building polypeptide strands
    Protein synthesis/translation
  46. ____ is 3 nucleotides in mRNA strand that code for amino acids
    Codon
  47. ____ is where 3 nucleotides are found on tRNA
    Anti codon
  48. _____ proved that it was actually DNA, and not protein that carried genetic information in cells, by using radioactively labelled bacteriophage virus and bacterium
    Hershey & Chase
  49. _____ correctly proposed the double helix structure of the DNA molecule as well of how DNA is replicated
    Watson & Crick
  50. ___ lack an oxygen atom in their C2 and are used by DNA
    Deoxyribose sugr
  51. _____ have an oxygen atom in their C2 and are found in RNA
    Ribose sugat
  52. ____ are bicyclic and include adenine and guanine
    Purines
  53. ____ are monocyclic and include thymine uricile and cytosine
    Pyrimadines
  54. ___ are the building blocks of DNA and RNA
    Nucleotides
  55. ____ is only used in DNA
    Thymine
  56. _____ is only used in RNA
    Uricile
  57. _____ is double stranded and contains deoxyribose sugar
    DNA
  58. ____ is single stranded and contains ribose sugar
    RNA
  59. ______ nucleic acid can only be found in the nucleus
    DNA
  60. ______ nucleic acid can only be found both in the nucleus and cytoplasm
    RNA
  61. _____ took X-ray diffraction photographs of DNA, helped Watson and crick.
    Rosalind Franklin
  62. ____ discovered that equal amounts of A and T where found in both organisms and where equal and C and T
    Erwin Chargaff
  63. ____ are the building blocks of an organism.
    Genes
  64. ___ are errors in the DNA sequence that can cause incorrect amino acids sequences to be formed in a polypeptide
    Mutaions
  65. _____ are agents such as chemicals, UVA, or radioactive elements that can induce or increase the frequency of mutation in an organism
    Mutagen
  66. ____ are joined tougher by peptide bonds
    Amino acid
  67. ___ are chains of amino acids formed together to make protein
    Polypeptide
  68. ____ occurs when one or more base pairs are added or deleted in DNA strand
    Frame shifting
  69. ____ is the production of identical copies of molecules, genes, cells or organisms
    • Cloning
    • Ie: dolly the sheep
  70. ____ is the process of using DNA. DNA fragments to identify a person or organism
    DNA Fingerprinting
  71. The _____ is a technology that is used to make millions of copies of a DNA fragment in a short period of time
    Polymerase chain
  72. Also called protein synthesis. Process that happens in the ribosomes of cells
    Translation
  73. General dogma of molecular biology
  74. Purine and Pyrimidine diagram
  75. DNA diagram
  76. DNA replication diagram
  77. another central dogma

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