Neuro

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Author:
mizzoupt
ID:
36189
Filename:
Neuro
Updated:
2010-09-20 23:08:26
Tags:
Structure Function Cells Nervous System
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Description:
Structure and Function of Cells in the Nervous System
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  1. The axon originates from the _________
    Axon hillock
  2. The axon ends in the ______________
    presynaptic terminal
  3. The NTs are released into the ___________
    synaptic cleft
  4. What is the space between the neurons?
    Synaptic cleft
  5. The nucleus of the Neuron:
    • Contains genetic material
    • Directs metabolic activity of cell
  6. Mitochondria of neuron
    Converts nutrients into energy
  7. Endoplasmic Reticulum of neuron
    • Rough (Nissl Sunbstance/body): synthesis and transports proteins
    • Smooth: synthesizes and transports lipids
  8. Ribosomes of the neuron
    • Protein synthesis
    • On Rough: proteins for neurons
    • On Smooth: NTs
  9. Golgi Apparatus of the neuron
    Packages NT
  10. Anterograde:
    • NT transport from soma to synapse
    • Kinesin
  11. Retrograde
    • NT transport from synapse to soma
    • Dynein
  12. Purpose of neurons:
    • Control: sensation, movement, autonomic function, mental processes
    • Develop new interactions
    • Modify output
  13. Neuron Functions
    • Sensory information from peripheral receptors sent through spinal cord to brain where info is processed and response is generated
    • Motor response sent though spinal cord to peripheral nerves to muscles
  14. How are neurons classified?
    Based on the number of neurites
  15. Unipolar neurons
    • Has only one process extending from the soma, branching into dendrites or axon terminals
    • (Typical of invertebrate animals)
  16. Bipolar Neurons
    • Two primary processes from cell body
    • Axon
    • Dendrite
    • Example: Retinal cells
  17. Multipolar neurons
    • Multiple dendrites and single axon
    • Most common cell of vertebrate nervous system
    • Receive huge amount of input
    • Examples: Motor neuron (from spinal cord to skeletal muscle) and purkinje cells in cerebellum
  18. Pseudounipolar neurons
    • Type of bipolar
    • Appear to have single projection that divides into axonal roots
    • 2 axons and no dendrites
    • Example: Sensory neurons
    • Peripheral axon: conducts from receptor to cell body
    • Central: cell body to spinal cord
  19. Types of Glial cells
    • Magroglia (Large glial cells): Astrocytes, Oligodendrocytes, Scwann Cells
    • Microglia (small glial cells)
  20. Glial Cells
    • Support Cells: provide metabolic support, insulate, protect, reinforce, repair, and cleanup damaged areas
    • Also transmit informations
    • Involved in Alzheimer's and MS

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