New Netherlands, New York
Charles give brother James duke of York all territory lying between the Connecticut and Delaware Rivers. The grant faced caused a challenge to the Dutch. Richard Nicolls in charge of navy. Went to New Amsterdam and extracted surrender from unpop Dutch gov. Duke of York renamed it New York. Lots of diversity. James made no effort to impose his Roman Catholicism on colony. Delegated powers to a gov and a council but made no provision for rep assemblies. Property holding and political power remained highly divided and highly unequal. James give large estates to some political supporters. Power dispersed around wealthy English landlords Dutch patroons fur traders and duke’s political appoints. When he took throne as James II had about 30,000 people.