Micro Vocab Chap 8

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theshackfam
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36226
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Micro Vocab Chap 8
Updated:
2010-09-21 01:26:40
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Vocab
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Micro Vocab Chap 8
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  1. mutation
    any changes in the nitogenous base sequence of DNA
  2. genetic recombination
    the process of joining pieces of DNA from different sources
  3. transformation
    the process in which genes are transferred form one bacterium to another as "naked" DNA in solution
  4. competence
    the physiological state in which a recipient cell can take and incorporate a large piece of donor DNA
  5. conjugation
    the transfer of genetic material from one cell to another involving cell-to-cell contact
  6. transduction
    the transfer of DNA from one cell to another by bacteriophage
  7. bacteriophage
    a virus that infects bacterial cells (also known as a phage)
  8. genes
    a segment of DNA (a sequence of nucleotides in DNA) encoding a functional product
  9. DNA polymerase
    enzyme that synthesizes DNA by copying a DNA template
  10. semiconservative replication
    the process of DNA replication in which each double-stranded DNA molecule contains one original strand and one new strand
  11. transcription
    the process of synthesizing mRNA from a DNA template
  12. messenger RNA (mRNA)
    the type of RNA molecule that directs the incorporation of amino acids into proteins
  13. promoter
    the starting site on a DNA strand for transcription of RNA by RNA polymerase
  14. terminator
    the site on a DNA strand at which transcription ends
  15. codons
    a sequence of three nucleotides in mRNA that specifies the insertion of an amino acid into a polypeptide
  16. degeneracy
    redundancy of the genetic code; that is, most amino acids are encoded by several codons
  17. sense codons
    a codon that codes for an amino acid
  18. nonsense codons (stop codons)
    a codon that does not encode any amino acid
  19. transfer RNA (tRNA)
    the type of RNA molecule that brings amino acids to the ribosomal site where they are incorporated into proteins
  20. anticodon
    the three nucleotides by which a tRNA recognizes an mRNA codon
  21. base pairs
    the arrangement of nitogenous bases in nucleic acids based on hydrogen bonding; in DNA base pairs are A-T and G-C; in RNA base pairs are A-U and G-C

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