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participation is limited because politics is viewed as just another means by which individuals may improve their economic and social position.
political participation is regarded as the duty of each citizen in apolitical setting where govt seeks to promote the public welfare of all persons.
the powers that cities have under state laws are spelled out in these general statutes.
- States that municipal corporations can exercise only those powers expressly granted by state constitutions and laws and those necessarily implied from granted powers.
- Local govts are subbordinate to states.
modifies the traditional subordinate relationship of cities to states by permiting them to draft and approve their own characters, and it limits the ability of states to act on certain local matters
Ginnons v. Ogden
- SC supported the supremacy of national law and stepped in to interpret congressional power in interstate commerce.
- NY and NJ battle over hudson river.
- Decision: the power of the national govt to regulate commerce included all commercial activity.
allows proponents of reform to have suggestions for limited change placed on the ballot when amending the constitution.
- "powers not given to the federal govt, not denied to the states, are reserved to the states or to the people."
- Later on, it was reversed to allow limited intrution by federal gov.
each state would veto national legislation with which it disagreed.
Necessary and Proper clause
states that congress has the power to make all laws which shall be necesary and proper for carrying into execution the seventeen powers given to the national gov
transfering power voluntarily from national gov to state gov?
privileges and immunities
states must extend the same legal rights to residents of other states.
are made for specific purposes, such as job training, highway safery....recipient has little control over how or where money is spent.
distributed automatically to all eligible recipients on the basis of established guidelines
- provided for general categories or expenditures.
- allow greater choice by recipient and reduce or end matching requirements.
the name of an incumbent judge, whose term of office is about to expire, is placed on the ballor with no opposing candidates and voters determine whether judge should stay in office for another term.
Minority Vote Dilution
ocurs when election laws and racial bloc voting combine to keep minorits from winning elective positions.
minorities are part of the dominant city policy making coalition on minority-related issues.
National Voting Registration Act
required all states to have a mail-in, 'motor-voter' and agency-based registration procedures.
a procedure to remove an elected public official from office before their term is done.
gives voters the opportunity to have the final say on a bill that the legislature has already approved.
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