Eyes and Ears Assessment

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sashatom
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36271
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Eyes and Ears Assessment
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2010-09-21 12:00:22
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eyes ears disorders assessment
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Eye and ear health assessment lecture
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  1. What is the Upper pumctum?
  2. What is the plica semilunaris
  3. What is the palpebral fissures
    Eliptical open space between eyelid margins
  4. What is the cnathus?
    Corner of eye where lids meet
  5. What is the conjunctiva?
    Thin mucuous membrane folded like envelope b/w eyelids and eyeball
  6. What is lacrimal apparatus?
    Upper outer corner; secretes tears
  7. What is the Puncta?
    Where tears drain
  8. What is contained in the outer layer of the eye?
    Sclera and cornea
  9. What is contains in middle layer?
    Choroid
  10. What is contained in inner layer?
    Retina
  11. What part of the eye bends incoming light to focus on the inner retina?
    Cornea
  12. What layer of the eye contains the pupil?
    Middle Layer
  13. What is accommodation?
    Adjustment of the pupil diameter to focus on an object
  14. What layer of the eye contains the iris?
    Middle layer
  15. What 3 structures can be seen through an opthalmascope?
    • Optic disc
    • Macula
    • Fovea centralis
  16. What part of the ocular fundus changes light waves into nerve impulses?
    Retina
  17. Which part of the retina has the greatest visual acuity?
    Fovea centralis
  18. Which part of the retina has the darkest pigmentation?
    Macula
  19. What structure surrounds the fovea centralis?
    Macula
  20. Which cranial nerve is involved in afferent pathways of visual light reflex?
    Cranial Nerve II
  21. Which cranial nerve is involved in efferent pathways of visual light reflex?
    Cranial Nerve III
  22. At what point in gestation doe the eyes form?
    First 8 weeks
  23. When does central vision form (Macula)?
    4-8 months
  24. When does the eyeball reach adult size?
    Age 8
  25. When is visual acuity fully developed?
    Age 7-8
  26. When is central acuity diminished?
    Age 70
  27. When does Presbyopia begin?
    Age 40
  28. What is Presbyopia?
    Hardening of the lens
  29. What is arcus senilis?
    due to deposition of lipid material around the cornea; appears like a gray-white are or circle; may look thickened and raised with increased lipid accumulation but vision is not affected
  30. What is caratacts?
    Lens thickens and yellows, causing lens to look opaque
  31. What is glaucoma?
    • Increased interocular pressure
    • What is macular degeneration?
    • Cells of the macula breakdown causing loss of central vision
  32. What is strabismus?
    Crossing of the eyes
  33. What is diplopia?
    Double vision
  34. What kind of vision does the snellen chart test?
    Far vision
  35. What kind of vision does the Rosenbaum chart test?
    Near vision
  36. What is non-icteric?
    Not yellow
  37. What is OD?
    Right eye
  38. What is OS?
    Left eye
  39. What is OU?
    Both eyes
  40. What is Anisocoria?
    unequal pupil size
  41. What is Anisocoria a sign of?
    CNS disease (except 5% of population)
  42. What is Miosis?
    constricted pupils due to narcotics, drops for glaucoma
  43. What is Mydriasis?
    enlarged pupils due to stimulation of sympathetic NS
  44. What are three causes of mydriasis?
    • dilating drops
    • trauma
    • acute glaucoma
    • What is an E-chart used for?
    • Children 3-6 or illiterate clients
  45. What are picture charts used for?
    Age 2 and up
  46. What is pseudo-strabismus?
    In infants, when it looks like eyes are crossing because bridge of nose is flattened
  47. What is Ptosis?
    Neuromuscular weakness of ocular muscles
  48. What is pseudoptosis?
    Drooping of lid
  49. What is Ectropion?
    lower lid rolling out and loose, excess tearing, exposed palpebral conjunctiva increases risk of infection
  50. What is entropion?
    Lower lid rolls in, constant rubbing can irritate cornia
  51. What is xanthelasma?
    Soft, raised yellow plaques; occurs on lids at inner canthus; around 5th decade; more with women; can be associated with elevated lipid levels but also can be normal variant
  52. What is the pinna?
    The outer part of the ear
  53. Three normal signs of the tympanic membrane?
    • Pearly gray color
    • Cone of light
    • Oval
  54. What is peripheral air transmission?
    Transmission and conversion of sound vibration into nerve impulses for interpretation by the brain
  55. Three types of hearing loss?
    • Conductive
    • Sensorineural
    • Mixed
  56. When does the inner ear develop?
    During the first trimester
  57. What differences exist in the infants eustacian tube?
    Wider, shorter and more horizontal than adults
  58. What is otosclerosis?
    Hardening that causes foot step of stapes to become fixed to oval window impeding sound transmission;
  59. What does otosclerosis cause?
    progressive deafness
  60. What is presbycusis?
    gradual sensory hearing loss in the aging
  61. What tones are lost firs in presbycusis?
    Higher tones
  62. What is mastoid process tenderness a sign of?
    mastoiditis:
  63. What is mastoiditis?
    infection of mastoid process part of temporal bone of skull;from untreated otitis media;
  64. What direction do you pull the pinna of the ear in adults during an ear exam?
    Up and back
  65. What direction do you pull the pinna in children under 3 during an ear exam?
    Down
  66. What does the Rinne test assess?
    Air vs. bone conduction
  67. What is conductive loss?
    Mechanical dysfunction of the external or middle ear
  68. In conductive loss, which ear hears better in the Weber test?
    The bad ear
  69. In sensorineuro loss, which ear hears better in the Weber test?
    The good ear

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