Card Set Information
what does ADME mean?
Absorbtion, Distribution, Metabolism, Excretion.
what does AD stand for?
REMEMBER:A STANDS FOR AUDITORY
what does AS stand for?
what does AU stand for?
what does OD stand for?
REMEMBER:O FOR OPTOMETRIST
what does OS stand for?
what does OU stand for?
what is the abbreviation for po?
oral or by mouth
what is gastrostomy?
feeding tube surgically implanted directly into the stomach to administer meds/feedings
what does jejunostomy mean?
feeding tube surgically implanted directly into the sm intestine to give meds/food.
what does parenteral mean?
all injection forms of administration
abbreviation for subcutaneous...?
SQ or subq
abbreviation for intramuscular..?
abbreviation for intravenous...?
IM injections absorb more quickly than subq bc increased blood supply.
BUT no more than 5ml/cc should be given in one injection
what drugs should NOT b given by IM bc they are NOT water soluble...causing tissue damage?
IV therapeutic effect is immediate n this route bypasses absorption step in the drug cycle
just know this!!!
what does bolus or IV push mean?
sm amount drug given over breif period of time.
IV infusion or IV drip
continuous meds over long period of time
IV piggyback means?..........
2nd drug given piggybacked into the main IV line.
what is a central venous line?
special cath into subcutaneous tissue of the upper chest inserted in lg superior vena cava vein
placed in trachea during emergency situations and drugs are absorbed through the lungs.
ONLY SPECIFIC DRUGS CAN BE GIVEN THIS WAY!!!
what does NAVEL stand for?
Narcan, Atropine, Valium, Epinephrine, or Lidocaine.
what does surfactant mean.?
synthetic med given to mature lung tissue
what is an Implantable port?
intravenous access device threaded superior vena cava administers chemo meds.
what is the route that goes directly into a tumor?
what is it called when administered meds go directly into a joint?
what is the route that goes into the heart chambers but is only used as a last resort?
intrathecal goes where?
meninges around the spinal cord/into the cerebrospinal cord
meds directly into the peritoneal cavity
what route delivers drugs directly through the urethra?
what is the best way for an IV for sick newborns and only given by the MD?
umbilical artery or vein
SOME DRUGS ARE NOT ABSORBED BUT RATHER BIND WITH WATER!!
3 steps of absorption:
tablets, capsules, suppositories
once liquid, drug dissolves in surrounding body fluids
from body fluids....through capillary walls and into the blood
absorption of topical meds.....?
happens at the site
THE BRAIN IS ONE AREA OF OUR BODY WHERE SOME DRUGS MAY NOT B DISTRIBUTED!!!
transforming the drug from its orginal form so the body can use it.
what is name for the process of metabolism..?
what is the main organ of metabolism.......?
first bypass effect is.....?
metabolic action of the liver
CAN'T B TAKEN ORALLY
NITROGYCERIN IS GIVEN ORALLY AT A HIGHER DOSE BC 90% IS DESTROYED IN METABOLIC PHASE.
what is a prodrug?
metabolized leaving the original drug to be used by the body
DECREASE IN LIVER FUNCTION WILL AFFECT THE RATE OF DRUG METABOLISM.
what is the principal organ of excretion?
ex's of excretion.....
lungs exhales, breast milk, tears, sweat..
WATER SOLUBLE ARE EXCRETED FASTER
______ soluble drugs are EVENTUALLY transformed faster into a water soluble.
DRUGS EFFECT CAN B ALTERED BY AN INTERACTION WITH OTHER DRUGS OR FOODS.
what is a RECEPTOR?
speacial molecule which responds to or interacts with a specific chemical such as a drug.
if a drug can "UNLOCK" the receptor it is known as......?
some drugs (keys) don't fit/fit but don't unlock then they r called........?
antagonists or blockers
2 main recptors in the body are_______
epinephrine n norepinephrine from sympathetic nervous system
acetylcholine from parasympathetic nervous system
throughout the body
site of administration
IV, IM, subq, Oral, inhaled, rectal, topical (cream/ointment)
inhaled, vaginal, rectal, topical (patch), intradermal (tb test)
what is the therapeutic effect...?
is drugs main action for which it was prescribed
therapeutic effect either:
cures a disease
prevents a disease
diagnosis a disease
side effects can b:
mild and short lived
moderate and annoying
severe enough the drug needs to be discontinued
list drug side effects
*NO DRUG IS ENTIRELY SAFE AND WITHOUT POTENTIAL SIDE EFFECTS AND RISKS
what are severe side effects called?
#s with adverse reactions
1.5 million hospitalization a yr.
4000 a day
770,000 develop adverse drug reaction in the hospital
*100,000 die each yr
____ occurs when drug levels rise higher than therapeudic levels.
narrow margin of safety bt the therapeutic dose and the toxic dose.
treatment for toxic effects
decrease dose given
lengthen the time bt doses
_______ reaction that occurs when our body's immune system identifies a foreign substance......
antigen is what........?
itching, swelling, redness, sneezing, wheezing
bronchospasm, edema, shock, death
anaphylaxis/anaphylactic shock is what......?
MOST severe allergic reaction
undesirable drug combination........
alcohol and tranquilizers
alcohol and antihistamines
another type of undesirable action when 2 drugs combine and produce less than the intended effect....
only have dots ontop to represent the ones
kilogram used to measure....
1 kilogram=2.2 lbs
drugs usually measured in milligrams
medication doses for weights:
grams or kilograms
ONLY drug measured in inches is NITROGLYCERIN OINTMENT
abr. gtt for eyes
abr. mEq 1/1000th of an equivalent
is part of a whole
expresses relationship bt concentration of 2 substances together in a solution
6 rights of drug administration
the right patient
ad lib means
twice a day
at bedtime; hr of sleep
nothing by mouth
4 times a day
every other day
3 times a day