ch 4&5

Card Set Information

Author:
christal
ID:
36276
Filename:
ch 4&5
Updated:
2010-09-21 13:11:40
Tags:
pharm
Folders:

Description:
study guide
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user christal on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. what does ADME mean?
    Absorbtion, Distribution, Metabolism, Excretion.
  2. what does AD stand for?
    right ear

    REMEMBER:A STANDS FOR AUDITORY
  3. what does AS stand for?
    left ear
  4. what does AU stand for?
    BOTH ears
  5. what does OD stand for?
    right eye

    REMEMBER:O FOR OPTOMETRIST
  6. what does OS stand for?
    left eye
  7. what does OU stand for?
    both eyes
  8. what is the abbreviation for po?
    oral or by mouth
  9. what is gastrostomy?
    feeding tube surgically implanted directly into the stomach to administer meds/feedings
  10. what does jejunostomy mean?
    feeding tube surgically implanted directly into the sm intestine to give meds/food.
  11. what does parenteral mean?
    all injection forms of administration
  12. abbreviation for subcutaneous...?
    SQ or subq
  13. abbreviation for intramuscular..?
    IM
  14. abbreviation for intravenous...?
    IV
  15. IM injections absorb more quickly than subq bc increased blood supply.
    BUT no more than 5ml/cc should be given in one injection
  16. what drugs should NOT b given by IM bc they are NOT water soluble...causing tissue damage?
    • valium
    • librium
  17. IV therapeutic effect is immediate n this route bypasses absorption step in the drug cycle
    just know this!!!
  18. what does bolus or IV push mean?
    sm amount drug given over breif period of time.
  19. IV infusion or IV drip
    continuous meds over long period of time
  20. IV piggyback means?..........
    2nd drug given piggybacked into the main IV line.

    ex: blood
  21. what is a central venous line?
    special cath into subcutaneous tissue of the upper chest inserted in lg superior vena cava vein
  22. endotracheal tube............?
    placed in trachea during emergency situations and drugs are absorbed through the lungs.

    ONLY SPECIFIC DRUGS CAN BE GIVEN THIS WAY!!!
  23. what does NAVEL stand for?
    Narcan, Atropine, Valium, Epinephrine, or Lidocaine.
  24. what does surfactant mean.?
    synthetic med given to mature lung tissue
  25. what is an Implantable port?
    intravenous access device threaded superior vena cava administers chemo meds.
  26. what is the route that goes directly into a tumor?
    INTRA-ARTERIAL ROUTE
  27. what is it called when administered meds go directly into a joint?
    intra-articular
  28. what is the route that goes into the heart chambers but is only used as a last resort?
    intrathecal
  29. intrathecal goes where?
    meninges around the spinal cord/into the cerebrospinal cord
  30. intraperitoneal route.......?
    • meds directly into the peritoneal cavity
    • *peritoneal dialysis
  31. what route delivers drugs directly through the urethra?
    intravesical route
  32. what is the best way for an IV for sick newborns and only given by the MD?
    umbilical artery or vein
  33. KNOW......
    SOME DRUGS ARE NOT ABSORBED BUT RATHER BIND WITH WATER!!
  34. 3 steps of absorption:
    • disintegrate
    • dissolve
    • absorb
  35. what disintegrate?
    tablets, capsules, suppositories
  36. dissolve.........
    once liquid, drug dissolves in surrounding body fluids
  37. absorb.......?
    from body fluids....through capillary walls and into the blood
  38. absorption of topical meds.....?
    happens at the site
  39. KNOW
    THE BRAIN IS ONE AREA OF OUR BODY WHERE SOME DRUGS MAY NOT B DISTRIBUTED!!!
  40. metabolism......?
    transforming the drug from its orginal form so the body can use it.
  41. what is name for the process of metabolism..?
    BIOTRANSFORMATION
  42. what is the main organ of metabolism.......?
    LIVER!!!
  43. first bypass effect is.....?
    metabolic action of the liver

    CAN'T B TAKEN ORALLY
  44. KNOW*
    NITROGYCERIN IS GIVEN ORALLY AT A HIGHER DOSE BC 90% IS DESTROYED IN METABOLIC PHASE.
  45. what is a prodrug?
    metabolized leaving the original drug to be used by the body
  46. KNOW*
    DECREASE IN LIVER FUNCTION WILL AFFECT THE RATE OF DRUG METABOLISM.
  47. what is the principal organ of excretion?
    KIDNEY
  48. ex's of excretion.....
    lungs exhales, breast milk, tears, sweat..
  49. KNOW*
    WATER SOLUBLE ARE EXCRETED FASTER
  50. ______ soluble drugs are EVENTUALLY transformed faster into a water soluble.
    *FAT
  51. therapeutically means.....?
    TREAT
  52. KNOW*
    DRUGS EFFECT CAN B ALTERED BY AN INTERACTION WITH OTHER DRUGS OR FOODS.
  53. what is a RECEPTOR?
    speacial molecule which responds to or interacts with a specific chemical such as a drug.
  54. if a drug can "UNLOCK" the receptor it is known as......?
    AGONIST
  55. some drugs (keys) don't fit/fit but don't unlock then they r called........?
    antagonists or blockers
  56. 2 main recptors in the body are_______
    • adrenergic receptor
    • cholinergic receptor
  57. adrenergic receptors.....
    • neurotransmitters
    • epinephrine n norepinephrine from sympathetic nervous system
  58. cholinergic receptors......?
    acetylcholine from parasympathetic nervous system
  59. systemically means.....?
    throughout the body
  60. locally means.....?
    site of administration
  61. *KNOW

    Systemic
    IV, IM, subq, Oral, inhaled, rectal, topical (cream/ointment)
  62. *KNOW

    local
    inhaled, vaginal, rectal, topical (patch), intradermal (tb test)
  63. what is the therapeutic effect...?
    is drugs main action for which it was prescribed
  64. therapeutic effect either:
    • cures a disease
    • decreases disease
    • prevents a disease
    • diagnosis a disease
  65. side effects can b:
    • mild and short lived
    • moderate and annoying
    • severe enough the drug needs to be discontinued
  66. FDA must......
    list drug side effects
  67. *NO DRUG IS ENTIRELY SAFE AND WITHOUT POTENTIAL SIDE EFFECTS AND RISKS
  68. what are severe side effects called?
    adverse reactions/effects
  69. #s with adverse reactions
    • 1.5 million hospitalization a yr.
    • 4000 a day
    • 770,000 develop adverse drug reaction in the hospital

    *100,000 die each yr
  70. ____ occurs when drug levels rise higher than therapeudic levels.
    toxic effects
  71. therapeudic index
    narrow margin of safety bt the therapeutic dose and the toxic dose.
  72. *know
    treatment for toxic effects
    • discontinue drug
    • decrease dose given
    • lengthen the time bt doses
  73. ototoxicity means.....
    deafness
  74. nephrotoxicity means..........
    kidney failure
  75. _______ reaction that occurs when our body's immune system identifies a foreign substance......
    allergy
  76. antigen is what........?
    foreign substance
  77. mild reaction
    itching, swelling, redness, sneezing, wheezing
  78. severe reaction
    bronchospasm, edema, shock, death
  79. anaphylaxis/anaphylactic shock is what......?
    MOST severe allergic reaction
  80. synergism is.......?
    desirable action
  81. undesirable drug combination........
    • alcohol and tranquilizers
    • alcohol and antihistamines
  82. another type of undesirable action when 2 drugs combine and produce less than the intended effect....
    antagonism
  83. roman numerals
    only have dots ontop to represent the ones
  84. kilogram used to measure....
    weight
  85. liter measures.......
    volume
  86. meter measures
    length
  87. 1 kilogram=2.2 lbs
    drugs usually measured in milligrams
  88. medication doses for weights:
    pple
    babies
    children
    elderly
    cancer patients
    grams or kilograms
  89. *KNOW
    1 CC=1mL
  90. units
    • insulin
    • vitamins
  91. inches
    ONLY drug measured in inches is NITROGLYCERIN OINTMENT
  92. drops
    abr. gtt for eyes
  93. milliequivalents
    abr. mEq 1/1000th of an equivalent
  94. percentage
    is part of a whole
  95. ratio
    expresses relationship bt concentration of 2 substances together in a solution
  96. 6 rights of drug administration
    • the right patient
    • right drug
    • right dose
    • right route
    • right time
    • right documentation
  97. ac means
    before meals
  98. ad lib means
    as desired
  99. BID means
    twice a day
  100. c means
    with
  101. hs means
    at bedtime; hr of sleep
  102. NPO means
    nothing by mouth
  103. pc means
    after meals
  104. PRN means
    as needed
  105. qd means
    every day
  106. Qhs means
    every bedtime
  107. QID means
    4 times a day
  108. QOD means
    every other day
  109. s means
    without
  110. TID means
    3 times a day

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview