Psychology 270 exam 1

Card Set Information

Author:
martyr01
ID:
36280
Filename:
Psychology 270 exam 1
Updated:
2010-09-28 00:58:46
Tags:
UIC Psychology
Folders:

Description:
Abnormal Psychology
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user martyr01 on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. What is abnormal psychology?
    • The scientific study of abnormal behavior....
    • description (what)
    • expanation (why or cause)
    • prediction (outcomes)
    • also treatment (change)
    • and sometimes prevention
  2. What is abnormal?
    Too little or too much away from normal
  3. Definitions of Abnormality
    • Faulty perceptions- distortions
    • Distress- significantly unpleasant & upsetting
    • Maladaptive- causes inteerference with daily functioning
    • Danger- threat of harm to self &/ or others
    • Statistical rarity- infrequent
    • Social deviance- violations of social cultural norms; cultural relativism important
  4. Abbreviations
    • Dx = Diagnosis
    • Rx = Prescription
    • Tx = Treatment, therapy
    • D/o = Disorder
    • MZ = Monozygotic; one egg, identical twins
    • DZ = Dizygotic; 2 eggs, fraternal twins
    • Ψ = Psychology
  5. Psycho
    Affect the mind
  6. Psychotic
    Lose touch with reality
  7. Co-morbility
    When someone falls under 2 or more disorders
  8. Kinship
    The likelyhood of you inheriting a biological disorder
  9. Models of abnormality
    world views to explain phenomena are known as models (or paradigms)

    provide assumptions about causality
  10. World Views-Early 20th Century
    • Somatogenic = abnormal behavior has physical causes (aka medical model) E.g., ECT
    • Psychogenic = abnormal behavior has psychological causes E.g., hypnosis
  11. World Views-Sociocultural
    • Increasing identification of sociocultural factors such as gender, ethnicity, poverty => sociogenic
    • Advances in technology led to increasing recognition that no one worldview was sufficient; a complex, integrated model is necessary => biopsychosocial model
  12. Events related to deinstitutionalization
    • 1950's & 1960's
    • Psychotrophic medications discovered, especially antipsychotics
    • Legislative reform led to development of community mental health centers
  13. Biological Model
    • Psychological abnormality is a disease caused by malfunctioning of physical self, especially the brain, thus, a medical perspective.
    • kinship
    • twin (MZ cvs. DZ)
    • adoption
  14. Biological Explanations
    • Brain anatomy = distortions in size, shape and/ or structure
    • Nervous System - chemical messengers called neurotransmittters, imbalance related to specific d/o's
    • Brain Chemistry,Endocrine system - chemical messengers called hormones
    • Genetics - chromosomes defects related to specific d/o's
  15. Psychodynamic Concepts
    • Models: Common features
    • Behavior determined by intrapsychic forces-> not freely chosen
    • Primarily unconscious
    • Affected by childhood experiences

    Freud
  16. Freud's Model
    • Id: insticnts/ drives; pleasure principle
    • Ego: "self"; reality principle. balances the personalities
    • Superego: conscience and ego-ideal; moral principle

    Imbalance/conflict => abnormal behavior
  17. Psychodynamic therapies
    talking cure: patient should not be able to see doctor they should be able to talk freely. Bringing unconscious truama and conflict.
  18. Learning Models
    • Classical conditioning
    • Operant conditioning
    • Social-cognitive
  19. Learning Concepts-Classical Conditioning
    • Stimulus response
    • Tx counterconditioning/ phobias
    • US- unconditioned stimulus
    • UR- uncondtioned response
    • CS- conditioned stimulus
    • CR- conditioned response
  20. Learning Concepts-Operant Conditioning
    • Positive/negative reinforcement increases likelihood of behavior
    • Positive/negative punishemnt decreases likelihood of behavior
    • Tx involves behavior modification
  21. Learning Concepts-Social Cognitive
    • Individuals learn behaviors by observing social context aka modeling
    • Learning can occur without direct consequences because of expectancies
    • Tx involves modeling, manipulating expectancies
  22. Cognitive Concepts
    • Focus is on attention, thoughts, interpretations--perceptions
    • Faulty thinking is cause of abnormal behavior
  23. Humanistic Concepts
    Emphasis on self-actualization
  24. Sociocultural Concepts
    Focus on social and culural forces that influences and individual
  25. Criteria of causality-relation to research designs
    • Covariation of events
    • Time-order relationship
    • Elimination of plausible alternatives

    • Case study
    • provides detailed data

    • Correlational study-predictable relationship between 2+ variables
    • +1 perfect positive
    • -1 perfect negative
    • 0 no consistent relationship

    • Experimental study- variable is manipulated; manipulations effect on another variable is observed
    • manipulated=independent variable
    • observed=dependent variable
  26. Assessment Criteria
    • Reliability = consistency
    • Validity = usefulness, revelance
    • Standardization; is how the assessment is done
  27. Assessment Methodology
    • Observation
    • Interviews
    • Psychological tests
    • Behavioral assessment
    • Cognitive assessment
    • Physiological measures
  28. Assessment Methodology Examples
    • Observation
    • in natiralistic environment
    • Interviews
    • clinical interview
    • Pychological test
    • iq test
    • achievement test
    • adaptive test
    • personality test
    • neuropsychological test
    • Behavioral & Cognitive
    • behavioral assessment- based on learning models
    • cognitive assessment- focus on cognitions
  29. DSM
    • Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
    • improved reliabilty; validity concerns
    • prototypical approach
    • descriptive only, not explanatory
    • multi-axial system
  30. Psychophysiological Disorders
    • Stress
    • adjustment d/o's
    • mild; in response to stressor
    • acute stress d/o and post-traumatic stress d/o
    • in response to trauma; differ re onset and length
  31. 3 models of stress
    • General adaptation syndrome
    • within the person
    • alarm- sympathetic n.s. and endocrin
    • resistence- parasympathetic n.s.
    • exhaustion- illness
    • Life change model
    • within the environment
    • re stress potential of life events
    • Transaction model
    • within the interaction between the person & the environment
  32. Major factors contributing to/dealing with stress
    • Biological
    • genetic vulnerabilites
    • Environmental
    • stressful events
    • Sociocultural
    • social support
    • Psychological
    • Locus of Control
    • Hardiness
    • Self-efficacy
    • behavioral patterns
    • coping styles

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview