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2010-09-21 14:11:02

Microbiology Exam 2
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  1. Metabolism
    Coordination of many different chemical reactions and the organization of molecules into specific structures.
  2. Catabolic reactions
    Energy releasing chemical reactions
  3. Anabolic Reactions
    Energy requiring chemical reactions
  4. Siderophores
    Bind to Iron and transport it into the cell
  5. Culture Media
    the nutrient solutions used to grow microorganisms in the laboratory
  6. Pure Culture
    A culture containing only a single kind of microorganism
  7. Aseptic technique
    A series of steps to prevent contamination during manipulations of cultures and sterile culture media
  8. Free Energy
    the energy released that is available to do work (delta G)
  9. Exergonic
    Energy yielding reactions
  10. Endergonic
    reactions require energy to proceed
  11. Activation Energy
    The energy required to break the bonds in the catalysis of an enzyme
  12. Catalyst
    substance that lowers the activation energy of a reaction, thereby increasing the reaction rate.
  13. Enzymes
    Biological Catalysts
  14. Coenzymes
    Loosely bound to enzymes that participate in catalysis. It is not a substrate nor protein
  15. Prosthetic Groups
    bound very tightly to their enzyme, usually covalently and permanently. Non protein molecules that participate in catalysis but are not themselves substrates.
  16. Oxidized
    The electron donor in a reaction
  17. Reduced
    electron acceptor in a chemical reaction
  18. Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)
    The most important energy-rich phosphate compound in cells
  19. Substrate-level phosphorylation
    ATP is synthesized directly from an energy-rich intermediate during steps in the catabolism of the fermentable coumpound. This is how ATP is created during Fermentation.
  20. Oxidative phosphorylation
    ATP is produced at the expense of the proton motive force
  21. photophosphorylation
    occurs in phototrophic organisms. Also relies on the proton motive force
  22. Glycolysis
    A common pathway for the fermentation of glucose. It is an anaerobic process and can be divided into three stages, each involving a series of enzymatic reactions (preparatory, redox, and redox)
  23. Glycolysis Stage 1
    Preparatory reactions (Prep-steps) - these are not redox reactions and do not release energy but lead to the production of two molecules of a key intermediate, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, from glucose.
  24. Glycolysis Stage 2
    Redox Reactions - occur, energy is conserved in the form of ATP, and two molecules of pyruvate are formed
  25. Glycolysis Stage 3
    Redox Reactions occur once again and fermentation products are formed
  26. Proton Motive force
    pH gradient and electrochemical potential, causes the membrane to be energized much like a battery. Some of this energy is then conserved in the formation of ATP. Besides driving ATP synthesis, the energized state of the membrane can also be used to do work such as ion transport, flagellar rotation, and many other energy requiring reactions in the cell
  27. ATP synthase (ATPase)
    the complex that converts the proton motive force into ATP
  28. Citric Acid Cycle
    The pathway by which pyruvate is completely oxidized to CO2. For each pyruvate molecule oxidized through the CA cycle, three CO2 molecules are released.
  29. Anaerobic Respiration
    Under anoxic conditions, electron acceptors other than oxygen can be used to support respiration. Low energy is produced
  30. Acidophile
    An organism that grows best at low pH; typically below pH 6
  31. Aerobe
    an organism that can use oxygen (O2) in respiration; some require oxygen
  32. Aerotolerant Anaerobe
    A microorganism unable to respire oxygen (O2) but whose growth is unaffected by oxygen
  33. Alkaliphile
    An organism that has a growth pH optimum of 9 or higher
  34. Anaerobe
    An organism that cannot use O2 in respiration and whose growth is typically inhibited by O2
  35. Autolysis
    spontaneous cell lysis, usually due to the activity of lytic proteins called autolysins
  36. Batch Culture
    A closed-system microbial culture of fixed volume
  37. Binary Fission
    cell division following enlargement of a cell to twice its minimum size
  38. Biofilm
    an attached polysaccharide matrix containing bacterial cells
  39. Cardinal temperatures
    the minimum, maximum, and optimum growth temperatures for a given organism
  40. Chemostat
    a device that allows for the continuous culture of microorganisms with independent control of both growth rate and cell number
  41. Compatible solute
    a molecule that is accumulated in the cytoplasm of a cell for adjustment of water activity but that does not inhibit biochemical processes
  42. Divisome
    a complex of proteins that directs cell division processes in prokaryotes
  43. Extreme Halophile
    A microorganism that requires very large amounts of salt (NaCL) usually greater than 10% and in some cases near to saturation, for growth
  44. Extremophile
    An organism that grows optimally under one or more chemical or physical extremes, such as high or low temperature or pH
  45. Facultative
    With respect to oxygen, an organism that can grow in either its presence or absence
  46. FtsZ
    a protein that forms a ring along the mid-cell-division plane to initiate cell division
  47. Generation time
    the time required for a population of microbial cells to double
  48. Halophile
    a microorganism that requires NaCL for growth
  49. Halotolerant
    not requiring NaCl for growth but able to grow in the presence of salt, in some cases, substantial leves of salt
  50. Hyperthermophile
    A prokaryote that has a growth temperature optimum of 80 C or greater
  51. Mesophile
    An organism that grows best at temperatures between 20 and 45 C
  52. Microaerophile
    an aerobic organism that can grown only when oxygen tensions are reduced from that present in air
  53. Obligate anaerobe
    an organism that cannot grow in the presence of O2
  54. Osmophile
    an organism that grows best in the presence of high levels of solute typically sugar
  55. Psychrophile
    an organism with a growth temperature optimum of 15 C or lower and a maximum growth temperature below 20 C
  56. Plate count
    a viable counting method where the number of colonies on a plate is used as a measure of all numbers
  57. Psychrotolerant
    capable of growing at low temperatures but having an optimum above 20 C
  58. Thermophile
    an organism whose growth temperature optimum lies between 45 and 80 C
  59. Transpeptidation
    formation of peptide cross-links between muramic acid residues in peptidoglycan synthesis

  60. Xerophile
    • An organism that is able to live, or that lives best, in very dry environments