Other Major Blood Group Systems 8.6

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Other Major Blood Group Systems 8.6
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2010-09-22 20:57:58
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Blood Bank Unit 8.6 Other Major Blood Group Systems
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  1. The Lewis blood group system is located on what chromosome?
    19
  2. This blood group system is closely related to ABO system
    Lewis
  3. which blood group is formed at terminal sugars of type I precursor substance made by tissue cell in plasma?
    Lewis
  4. what are the four types of Lewis?
    • Lea
    • Leb
    • Lec
    • Led
  5. what are the only lewis antigens that are adsorbed on to the surface of the RBC?
    • Lea
    • Leb
  6. Lewis blood group is located primarily in what three parts of the body?
    • Saliva
    • Body fluids
    • Blood plasma
  7. what is the form of lewis in saliva?
    H2O sol glycoprotein
  8. what is the form of Lewis in body fluids?
    H2O sol glycoprotein
  9. what is the form of lewis in blood plasma?
    glycolipids
  10. Lewis substance are secondarily _________ onto RBC membrane from plasma as glycolipids.
    adsorbed
  11. true or false
    Lewis substance are not readily detectable on RBC
    false
  12. what are the two Lewis genes?
    • Le gene (dominant)
    • le gene (recessive)
  13. The amount of Lewis antigen detectable is influenced by what three genes?
    • Secretor genes (SeSe, Sese)
    • ABH genes (HH, Hh)
    • Lewis genes (LeLe, Lele)
  14. ABH, Sese, Lele genes are inherited __________.
    independently
  15. what is the gene that affects what Lewis substance is produced.
    Se gene
  16. If person has the Lewis gene it adds _______ to second sugar from the end.
    fucose
  17. what is the antigen produced when fucose is added to the second sugar from the end?
    Lea antigen
  18. If a person is a secretor the H gene adds _______ to terminal sugar of precursor substance.
    fucose
  19. If a person is a secretor the H ene adds fucose to terminal sugar of precursor substance forming what antigen?
    Leb antigen
  20. if a person has the phenotype Le(a-b+) what saliva antigens are produced?
    • Lea
    • Leb
  21. this system is markedly decreased during pregnancy.
    Lewis
  22. Le(a=b+) women may be what phenotype during pregnancy.
    Le(a=b=)
  23. what are the three types of lewis antibodies?
    • Anti-Lea
    • Anti-Leb
    • Anti-Lea and Leb
  24. Pregnant women frequently form _______ antibodies.
    lewis
  25. True or false
    Lewis is a naturally occuring antibody.
    true
  26. true or false
    Lewis antibodies can cause HDN
    false
  27. Lewis exhibits it strongest reaction in _______.
    saline
  28. Lewis antibodies react best at what temperature?
    • Cold (4oC)
    • room temp
  29. Lewis reaction can react on all phaes to inclued 37oC even though it is what class?
    IgM
  30. What is the antibody seen in Le(a=b=) people but not seen in Le(a=b+) people?
    Anti-Lea
  31. this antibody is seen in Le(A=b=) people who produce Anti-Lea but is rarely seen in Le(a+b=) people.
    Anti-Leb
  32. Which lewis antibodies shows no reaction with cord cells?
    • Anti Leb
    • Anti-Lea+Leb
  33. this antibody is seen in Le(a=b=) persons and reacts with both Lea and Leb antigens
    Anti Lea+Leb
  34. the I/i blood group was discovered in 1956 by who?
    Dr. alexander Wiener
  35. this antigen is thought to be composed of subgroups to form a mosaic of determinants.
    I/i antigen
  36. what are the three I determinants?
    • IF-Fetal
    • IT-transitional
    • ID-Developed
  37. This I antigen if found in greatest amounts on cord RBCs and found in small amounts on adult RBCs.
    IF-Antigen
  38. what I antigen is the precursor to Id antigen
    If antigen
  39. This is the intermediate conversion of IF to ID antigen.
    IT
  40. Antibody It reacts most weakly with what RBC?
    Adult i RBC
  41. It antigen reacts strongly with what RBC?
    cord i RBC (IF)
  42. this antigen is formed from the conversion of cord i antigen and found only in adult RBC.
    Id antigen
  43. most adults phenotype as what I antigen?
    • I+
    • i+/=
  44. what is the rare adult I phenotype?
    I+/=, i+ (i adult)
  45. i adults is when a person has a small amount of I antigen, frequency is less than 1 in ________.
    10,000
  46. what is the newborn I phenotype of Cord cells?
    I+/=, i+
  47. newborn I phenotype may have a small amount of I antigen in what form?
    If
  48. how long does it take for i to be converted to I antigen in adults?
    18 months
  49. true or false
    amount of I varies between different I+ persons.
    true
  50. I/i antigen may change in what three diseases?
    • Thalassemia
    • Anemia
    • Leukemia
  51. What are the five locations of I/i antigen?
    • Red Cells
    • Leukocytes
    • Lymphocytes
    • Platelets
    • Body fluids
  52. what is the antigen that may be a precursor to ABG and Lewis substances?
    I/i System
  53. ABH and Lewis substances created by addition of sugars to what antigen?
    I
  54. what people have more I antigens than other?
    Bombay
  55. what class of antibody are the I/i antibodies?
    IgM
  56. what are the two I antibodies?
    • anti-I
    • Anti-i
  57. Anti-I is a non-specific _____ agglutinin.
    cold
  58. this antibody is most often a _____-antibody in I+ people.
    auto
  59. true or false
    all normal serum contains some anti-I that is active at low temp and causes no in vivo problems.
    true
  60. Anit-I interferes with what three in vitro testings?
    • compatibility testing
    • antibody studies
    • ABO reverse grouping if done at low temp
  61. Anti-I does not prevent persons from receiving donor units that have what antigen?
    I
  62. Anti-I will hemolyze blood if warmed to what temp?
    40oC
  63. ISO anti-I in i adults should receive blood from what phenotype?
    i=
  64. use of autoabsorption and prewarming techniques should be used for this antibody because it may mask the presence of other more significant antibodies.
    Anti-I
  65. what is the optimum temperature for Anti-I?
    1-6oC
  66. Anti-I activity is enhanced by what protein?
    Albumin
  67. Anti-I complement binding is detected in what phase?
    AHG phase
  68. true or false
    Anti-I is naturally occuring
    true
  69. what are four conditions that Anti-i may be seen in?
    • alcoholic cirrhosis
    • Reticulosis
    • Infectious mononucleosis
    • Leukemia
  70. This I antibody has weak reactions with adult and autologous RBC.
    Anti-i
  71. Anti-i has strong reactions with what RBCs?
    cord
  72. This cold antibody has the same serological properties as Anti-I.
    Anti-i
  73. Anti-P1 is a _________ antibody.
    common
  74. how much of P2 population will form Anti-P1 naturally?
    2/3
  75. what percent of P2 pregnant woemn will form Anti-P1 naturally.
    90%
  76. Anti-P is a _____ naturally occurring IgM antibody.
    rare
  77. Anti-P is saline reactive at room temp but funtions optimumally at what temp?
    1-6oC
  78. Anti-P1 serum should be transfused with what?
    P2
  79. PCH is caused by auto antibody of what specificity?
    Anti-P
  80. Anti-P seen in PCH is _____ complement fixing.
    cold
  81. what is the name of the autoantibody in PCH?
    Donath Landsteiner (DL)
  82. in PCH, the DL antibody is usually what class?
    IgG
  83. DL antibody is associated with what five disease states?
    • syphilus
    • mumps
    • measles
    • infectious mononucleosis
    • pneumonia
  84. what are the six Kell antigens?
    • K (kell)
    • k (Cellano)
    • Kpa (Penny)
    • Kpb (rautenberg)
    • Jsa (Sutter)
    • Jsb (Mathew)
  85. The kell blood group system was discovered in 1946 by who?
    RRA (Robin) Coombs
  86. The Kell blood group was discovered in a woman (Mrs. Kellaher) whose baby was suffering from what disease?
    HDN
  87. What three Kell antigens occur in 99.9% of people?
    • k (cellano)
    • Kpb (rautenberg)
    • Jsb (matthews)
  88. What percent of whites and blacks have the K (Kell) antigen?
    • Whites: 9%
    • Blacks: 3.5%
  89. What percent of whites and blacks have the Kpa (Penny) antigen?
    • Whites: 2%
    • Blacks: 0.1%
  90. what percent of whites and blacks have the Jsa antigens?
    • Whites: 0.1%
    • Blacks: 20%
  91. the Kell system is composed of both ____ and _____ incidence antigens.
    • high
    • low
  92. what two Kell antigens are very antigenic?
    • K (Kell)
    • k (Cellano)
  93. this blood system is second in antigenicity only to ABO and RhoD
    Kell
  94. what percent of K negative patients who receive K positive blood produce Anti-K antibodies?
    10%
  95. the phenotype of what blood group is divided into three pairs as determined by allelic paired genes?
    Kell system
  96. what are the four phenotypes of the Kell system?
    • Kk
    • KpaKpb
    • JsaJsb
    • K0
  97. this is a very rare phenotype where red cells lack all antigens produced by Kell system genes.
    K0
  98. This is a phenotype lack of the Kx and Km and marked depression of other Kell antigens. RBC's are irregular shapes and protrusion.
    McLeod Syndrome
  99. Individuals with McLeods Syndrome show progressive forms of what three things?
    • muscular dystrophy
    • Cardiomegaly
    • neurologic disorders of areflexia which progress to choreiform
  100. This Kell associated disease is known as a childhood disease where leukocytes are unable to kill certain bacteria.
    Chronic Granulomatous Disease (CGD)
  101. This disease is thought be be caused by a lack of what antigen, especially in children.
    Kx
  102. this is a fairly common antibody due to antigenicity of K antigen.
    Anti-K
  103. most donor blood is negative for which two Kell antibodies?
    • Kpa=
    • Jsa=
  104. Kell antibody is most often what class of antibody
    IgG
  105. Kell antibodies sensitize red cells at what temperature?
    37oC
  106. what effect does enzyme treatment have on Kell?
    not enhanced
  107. this system is second to Rh system in HDN.
    Kell
  108. in what year was the Duffy blood group discovered in the patient Mr. Duffy?
    1950
  109. Fya and Fyb effects what percent of people?
    • Fya: 60%
    • Fyb: 80%
  110. what is the rare duffy phenotype?
    Fya=b=
  111. what are the three other duffy antigens?
    • Fy3
    • Fy4
    • Fy5
  112. what effect does enzyme treatment have on duffy antigens.
    destroys them
  113. The duffy antigens show some ______.
    dosage
  114. what duffy phenotype shows resistance to malaria (Plasmodium vivax) merozites?
    Fya=Fyb=
  115. Each person has ___ duffy genes?
    two
  116. What are the two Duffy antigens?
    • Anti-Fya
    • Anti-Fyb
  117. Duffy system antibodies are ________ immune antibodies.
    red cell
  118. Duffy system antibodies are what class?
    IgG
  119. Duffy system antibodies are reactive at what phase?
    Coombs
  120. Duffy system antibodes are capable of cuasing what disease states?
    • transfusion reactions
    • HDN
  121. This blood group was discovered in 1951 in an infant suffering from HDN.
    Kidd
  122. what was the patients name that the Kidd blood group was discovered in?
    John Kidd
  123. what percent of people have the Jka and Jkb antigens?
    • Jka: 77%
    • Jkb: 73%
  124. What Kidd gene is a silent Amorph?
    Jk
  125. what Kidd genese are codominant?
    • Jka
    • Jkb
  126. what is the Kidd phenotype that is extremely rare in American and European populations?
    JKa=b=
  127. The Jka=b= phenotype is seen in what ethnicities?
    • Filipino
    • Asian
    • Polynesian
  128. Jka=b= is a ___________ does of rare Jk gene
    homozygous
  129. Kidd antigens show marked ______.
    Dosage
  130. what reactions would you expect in a patient with Anti-Jka who's genotype is:
    JKaJka:
    JkaJkb:
    • JkaJka: 4+
    • JkaJkb: 2+
  131. Kidd antibodies are what class of antibody which react at what temp?
    • IgG
    • 37oC
  132. Kidd antibodies are weak reacting antibodies that are detected in what phase?
    AHG
  133. what effect does enzyme treatment have on Kidd antibodies?
    enhanced
  134. these antibodies deteriorate rapidly in vivo and in vitro.
    Kidd
  135. Kidd antibodies may cause HDN and _______ transfusion reaction.
    delayed
  136. what are the five antigens seen in the MNS blood group?
    • M
    • N
    • S
    • s
    • U
  137. This was the second blood group discovered after the ABO group.
    MNS system
  138. the MNS system was discovered in 1927 by who?
    Dr. Landsteiner
  139. What is the Frequency of the M antigen?
    78%
  140. What is the frequency of the N antigen?
    72%
  141. What is the frequency of the S (Big) antigen?
    55%
  142. what is the frequency of the s (small) antigen?
    89%
  143. What is the frequency of the U antigen?
    99.9%
  144. in the MNS system, a person inherits one __ or ___ gene and one __ or __ gene from each parent?
    • M or N
    • S or s
  145. in the MNS system the __ gene pair is linked to the __ gene pair.
    • MN
    • Ss
  146. The MNS system consists of ___________ alleles.
    codominant
  147. The MNS system shows what kind of dosage?
    marked dosage
  148. _____ cells react stronger with Anti-M than M+N+.
    M+N=
  149. what is the effect of enzyme treatment on the MNS antigen?
    destroyed
  150. what are the three enzymes that will destroy MNS antigens?
    • Ficin
    • Papain
    • Bromelin
  151. MNS antigens have what acid in their structure?
    Sialic acid
  152. True or false
    Anti-M/Anti-N antibodies are naturally occurring IgM.
    true
  153. Anti-M/Anti-N has a component of ____.
    IgG
  154. reactions of what antibodies are enhanced by lowering the pH to 6.5?
    Anti-M/Anti-N
  155. anti-s and Anti-S are reactive in what phase of testing?
    AHG
  156. Anti-S and is rarely a naturally occurring ___ class antibody, it is mostly an allo-antibody of ___ class.
    • IgM
    • IgG
  157. What antibody of the Ss system is a rare, red cell immune IgG?
    Anti-s
  158. This antibody is seen in renal dialysis patiend due to machine sterilized with formaldehyde.
    Anti-N
  159. There is a ________ frequency of anti-N.
    increased
  160. Anti-N may be seen in __ and ___ patients.
    • N+
    • N=
  161. this antibody is implicated in rejection of donor kidneys when transplanted cold.
    Anti-N
  162. Source of stimulis for Anti-N is _________.
    unknown
  163. This blood group was discovered in 1945 in a patient named Lutheran.
    Lutheran blood group
  164. What are the two main antigens in the Lutheran blood group?
    • Lua
    • Lub
  165. What are the four low incident Lutheran antigens?
    • Lua
    • Lu9
    • Lu10
    • Lu14
  166. what is the frequency of the Lua and Lub antigens?
    • Lua: 8%
    • Lub: 99.8%
  167. true or false
    Lua and Lub are not codominant
    False
  168. The genes of the Lutheran system are linked to what genes of the ABH system?
    secretor
  169. this blood group was the first example of autosomal linkage in humans.
    Lutheran
  170. what is the frequency of the phenotype Lua+b=?
    0.15%
  171. What is the frequency of the phenotype Lua+b+?
    7.5%
  172. What is the frequency of the phenotype Lua=b+?
    92%
  173. What is the rare phenotype in the lutheran system?
    Lua=b=
  174. the _______ of lutheran antigens varies between people.
    strength
  175. Lutheran antigens are not fully ________ at birth.
    developed
  176. what is the effect of enzyme treatment on Lutheran antigens?
    destroyed
  177. this lutheran phenotype may form antibody against any high incident antigens.
    Lua=b=
  178. Anti-Lua is a naturally occurring IgM antibody that shows what type of reactions?
    mixed field
  179. Anti-Lua is saline active, mostly at what temperature?
    room
  180. Most Anti-Lub antibodies are ______ red cell immune antibodies
    rare
  181. Anti-Lub are what class of antibodies?
    IgG
  182. Antigens in this system function in self/non-self discrimination.
    HLA system
  183. what are the four locations of HLA system antigens?
    • Immature NRBCs
    • Body tissue cells
    • Leukocytes
    • Platelets
  184. Leukocytes carry what six leukocyte antigens?
    • A
    • B
    • H
    • P
    • P1
    • I
  185. Antigens and genes in the HLA system are designated by what?
    letters HLA
  186. These are antigens produced by a series of closely linked codominant alleles located on Human Chromosome 6.
    HLA
  187. HLA system genes are located in what three classes fot he MHC?
    • Class I
    • Class II
    • Class III
  188. MHC has how many possible haplotypes?
    four
  189. What are the four HLA antigens tested for organ transplantation?
    • ABO
    • HLA-A
    • HLA-B
    • HLA-DR
  190. Bone Marrow Transplant candidate donors and recipients are tested for what five HLA antigens?
    • HLA-A
    • HLA-B
    • HLA-C
    • HLA-DR
    • HLA-DQ
  191. in what Blood group may platelet refractoriness develop?
    HLA
  192. use of this blood group in paternity testing can rule out 90-95% of falsely accused males?
    HLA
  193. Ankylosing Spondylitis is associated with what blood group?
    HLA
  194. HLA antibodies are what class?
    IgG
  195. HLA antibodies are found in what four people?
    • Receive multiple transfusion
    • History of pregnancy
    • Received leukocyte or platelet transfusion
    • Had organ transplants
  196. What are three problems caused by Leukocyte antibodies?
    • Febrile transfusion reactions
    • Destruction of donor leukocytes or platelets
    • Rejection of donor transplanted organs
  197. This determines the antigen present on the RBC.
    phenotyping
  198. Phenotyping tests for agglutination of ____ with commercially prepared reagent antisera.
    RBC
  199. What type of cells should be used as a control for phenotyping?
    heterozygous
  200. What is the only IgM antibody that will react in all phases of Coombs testing?
    Anti-Le
  201. What are the seven IgM antibodies?
    • I
    • P
    • N
    • Lea
    • Leb
    • Lua
    • M
  202. What class of antibodies can cross the placenta and cause HDN?
    IgG
  203. What is the enzyme treatment made from Figs latex?
    ficin
  204. what is the enzyme treatment made from papaya latex?
    papain
  205. Waht ist he enzyme treatment that is extracted from pineapple?
    bromelain
  206. Enzyme treatment destroys what three antigen systems?
    • Duffy
    • MNSs
    • Lutheran
  207. Enzyme treatment enhances what five antibodies?
    • Rh
    • Kidd
    • P1
    • Lewis
    • I
  208. What is the remedy for HLA?
    leukocyte reduced blood products
  209. What blood group system will cause febrile transfusion reactions?
    HLA
  210. Phenotype controls must be heterozygous to detect what?
    weak antibodies that show dosage
  211. What are the four complement binding blood groups?
    • lewis
    • I
    • Duffy (some)
    • kidd
  212. what four blood groups may or may not bind complement?
    • P
    • Kell
    • S
    • Lu
  213. What blood group will not bind complement?
    MN

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