Medical Terminology Chapter 5

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Stapp
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Medical Terminology Chapter 5
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2010-09-21 18:03:12
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Medical Terminology Exploring Medical Language Myrna LaFleur Brooks
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Medical Terminology chapter 5 terms in Exploring Medical Language by Myrna, LaFleur, and Brooks.
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  1. The area in the lungs where carbon dioxide and oxygen are exchanged:
    during external respiration, or breathing, oxygen passes from the lungs to the blood in the capillaries

    carbon dioxide also passes from the capillaries back into the lungs to be expelled
  2. nasal septum:
    partition separating the right and left nasal cavities
  3. pharynx:
    (also called the throat)

    serves as a food and air passageway

    air enters from the nasal cavities and passes through the pharynx to the larynx

    food enters the pharynx from the mouth and passes into the esophagus
  4. adenoids:
    lymphoid tissue located behind the nasal cavity
  5. larynx:
    (also called the voice box)

    location of the vocal cords

    air enters from the pharynx
  6. nose:
    lined with numerous mucous membrane and fine hairsit

    acts as a filter to moisten and warm the entering air
  7. paranasl sinuses:
    air cavities withen the cranial bones that open into nasal cavities
  8. tonsils:
    lymphoid tissue located behind the nasal cavity
  9. epiglottis:
    flap of cartilage that automatically covers the opening of and keeps food from entering the larynx during swallowing
  10. trachea:
    (also called the windpipe)

    passageway for air to the bronchi
  11. bronchus (pl. bronchi):
    inferior to the trachea

    1 of 2 branches from the trachea that conducts air into the lungs, where it divides and subdivides

    the branchings resemble a tree; therefore, they are referred to as a bronchial tree
  12. bronchioles:
    smallest subdivision of the bronchial tree
  13. alveolus (pl. alveoli):
    air sacs at the end of the bronchioles

    oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged through the alveolar walls and the capillaries
  14. lungs:
    2 spongelike organs in the thoracic cavity

    the right lung consists of 3 lobes

    the left lung consists of 2 lobes
  15. pleura:
    double-folded serous membrane covering each lung and lining the thoracic cavity with a small space between, called the pleural cavity, which contains serous fluid
  16. diaphragm:
    muscular partition that separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity

    it aids in the breathing process by contracting and pulling air in, then relaxing and pushing air out
  17. mediastinum:
    space between the lungs

    • it contains the=
    • -heart
    • -esophagus
    • -trachea
    • -great blood vessels
    • -and other structures
  18. Adenoid/o:
    adenoids
  19. Alveol/o:
    alveolus
  20. Bronch/i, bronch/o:
    bronchus
  21. Diaphragmat/o:
    diaphragm
  22. Epiglott/o:
    epiglottis
  23. Laryng/o:
    larynx
  24. Lob/o:
    lobe
  25. Nas/o, rhin/o:
    nose
  26. Pharyng/o:
    pharynx
  27. Pneum/o, pneumat/o, pneumon/o:
    lung, air
  28. pleur/o:
    pleura
  29. Pulmon/o:
    lung
  30. Sept/o:
    septum (wall off, fence)
  31. Sinus/o:
    sinus
  32. Thorac/o:
    thorax (chest)
  33. Tonsil/o:
    tonsil
  34. Trache/o:
    treachea
  35. Atel/o:
    imperfect, incomplete
  36. Capn/o:
    carbon dioxide
  37. Hem/o, hemat/o:
    blood
  38. Much/o:
    mucus
  39. Orth/o:
    straight
  40. Ox/o, ox/i:
    oxygen
  41. Py/o:
    pus
  42. Somn/o:
    sleep
  43. Spir/o:
    breathe, breathing
  44. a-, an-:
    without or absence of
  45. endo-:
    withen
  46. eu-:
    normal, good
  47. pan-:
    all, total
  48. poly-:
    many, much
  49. tachy-:
    fast, rapid
  50. -algia:
    pain
  51. -ar, -ary, -eal:
    pertaining to
  52. -cele:
    hernia or protrusion
  53. -centesis:
    surgical puncture to aspirate fluid

    (with a sterile needle)
  54. -ectasis:
    stretching out, dilatation, expansion
  55. -emia:
    blood condition
  56. -graphy:
    process of recording, radiographic imaging
  57. -meter:
    instrument used to measure
  58. -metry:
    measurement
  59. -pexy:
    surgical fixation, suspension
  60. -pnea:
    breathing
  61. -rrhagia:
    rapid flow of blood
  62. -scope:
    instrument used for visual examination
  63. -scopic:
    pertaining to visual examination
  64. -scopy:
    visual examination
  65. -spasm
    sudden, involuntary muscle contraction (spasmodic contraction)
  66. -stenosis:
    constriction or narrowing
  67. -stomy:
    creation of artificial opening
  68. -thorax:
    chest
  69. -tomy:
    cut into or incision
  70. atelectasis:
    incomplete expansion (of the lung of a newborn or collapsed lung)
  71. adenoiditis:
    inflammation of the adenoids
  72. bronchiectasis:
    dilation of the bronchi
  73. bronchitis:
    inflammation of the bronchi
  74. bronchogenic carcinoma:
    cancerous tumor originating in a bronchus
  75. bronchopneumonia:
    diseased state of the bronchi and lungs, usually caused by infection
  76. diaphragmatocele:
    hernia of the diaphragm
  77. eipglottitis:
    inflammation of the epiglottis
  78. hemothorax:
    blood in the chest (pleural space)
  79. laryngitis:
    inflammation of the larynx
  80. laryngottracheobronchitis (LTB):
    inflammation of the larynx, trachea, and bronchi (the acute form is called croup)
  81. lobar pneumonia:
    pertaining to the lobe(s); diseased state of the lung (infection of 1 or more lobes of the lung)
  82. nasopharyngitis:
    inflammation of the nose and pharynx
  83. pharyngitis:
    inflammation of the pharynx
  84. pansinusitis:
    inflammation of the sinuses
  85. pleuritis:
    inflammation of the pleura (also called the pleurisy)
  86. pneumatocele:
    hernia of the lung (lung tissue protrudes through an opening in the chest)
  87. pneumoconiosis:
    abnormal condition of dust in the lung
  88. pneumonia:
    diseased state of the lung
  89. pneumonitis:
    inflammation of the lung
  90. pneumothorax:
    air in the chest (pleural space), which causes collapse of the lung
  91. pyothorax:
    (also called empyema)

    • pus in the chest (pleural space)
  92. rhinitis:
    inflammation of the (mucous membranes) nose
  93. rhinorrhagia:
    (also called epistaxis)

    rapid flow of blood from the nose
  94. rhinomycosis:
    abnormal condition of fungus in the nose
  95. thoracalgia:
    pain in the chest
  96. tonsillitis:
    inflammation of the tonsils
  97. tracheitis:
    inflammation of the trachea
  98. tracheostenosis:
    narrowing of the trachea
  99. asthema:
    respiratory disease characterized by paroxysms of coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath, and constricted airways
  100. emphysema:
    stretching of lung tissue caused by alveoli becoming distended and losing elasticity
  101. Legionnaire disease:
    a lobar pneumonia caused by the bacterium Legionella pneumophila
  102. epistaxis:
    nosebleed (synonymous with rhinorrhagia)
  103. pleural effusion:
    excape of fluid into the pleural space as a result of inflammation
  104. pulmonary edema:
    fluid accumulation in the alveoli and bronchioles
  105. pulmonary embolism (pl. emboli) (PE):
    foreign matter, such as blood clot, air, or fat clot, carried in the circulation to the pulmonary artery, where it blocks circulation
  106. laryngoplasty:
    surgical repair of the larynx
  107. laryngectomy:
    excision of the larynx
  108. laryngostomy:
    creation of an artificial opening into the larynx
  109. laryngotreacheotomy:
    incision of the larynx and trachea
  110. thoracotomy:
    incision into the chest cavity
  111. tracheotomy:
    creation of an artificial opening into the trachea
  112. tracheoplasty:
    surgical repair of the trachea
  113. bronchoscope:
    instrument used for visual examination of the bronchi
  114. laryngoscope:
    instrument used for visual examination of the larynx
  115. endoscopy:
    visual examination withen a hollow organ or body cavity
  116. laryngoscopy:
    visual examination of the larynx
  117. oximeter:
    instrument used to measure oxygen saturation in the blood
  118. spirometer:
    instrument used to measure breathing or lung volumes
  119. ventilation-perfusion scanning (VPS):
    (also called a lung scan)

    a nuclear medicine procedure used to diagnose pilmonary embolism and other conditions
  120. arterial blood gases (ABGs):
    a test preformed on arterial blood to determine levels of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and other gases presten
  121. acapnia:
    condition of absence (less than normal level) of carbon dioxide in the blood
  122. aphonia:
    condition of absence of voice
  123. apnea:
    absence of breathing
  124. dysphonia:
    condition of difficult speaking
  125. dyspnea:
    difficult breathing
  126. eupnea:
    normal breathing
  127. hyperpnea:
    excessive breathing
  128. hypercapnia:
    condition of excessive carbon dioxide in the blood
  129. hypocapnia:
    condition of deficient carbon dioxide in the blood
  130. hypopnea:
    deficient breathing
  131. hypoxemia:
    condition of deficient oxygen in the blood
  132. intrapleural:
    pertaining to withen the pleura (space between the 2 pleural membranes)
  133. mucous:
    pertaining to mucous
  134. orthopnea:
    able to breathe easier in an upright position
  135. rhinorrhea:
    discharge from the nose

    (as in a cold)
  136. airway:
    passageway by which air enters and leaves the lungs as well as a mechanical device used to keep the air passageway unobstructed
  137. bronchoconstrictor:
    agent causing narrowing of the bronchi
  138. hypoventilation:
    ventilation of the lungs that does not fulfill the body's gas exchange needs
  139. mucopurulent:
    containing both mucus and pus
  140. nebulizer:
    device that creates a mist used to deliver medication for giving respiratory treatment
  141. patent:
    open (an airway must be patent)

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