Aerobic Gram Negative Rods and Cocci 7.8
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Aerobic Gram Negative Rods and Cocci 7.8
Aerobic Gram Negative rods Cocci Microbiology NSHS MLT
Microbiology Unit 7.8 Aerobic Gram Negative Rods and Cocci
Legionella pneumophila accounts for what percent of documented legionellosis?
how many serotypes of legionella pneumophila are there?
How many species and serotypes are there for legionella spp.?
Pseudomonadaceae have what general Gram stain characteristics?
Gram negative rods or coccobacilli
Pseudomonadaceae are what type of oxygen users?
motile species of Pseudomonadaceae have what type of flagellation.
Pseudomonadaceae organisms degrade carbohydrates via ______ rather than fermentative pathway.
Pseudomonadaceae are all typically non-________ fermenters.
what is the TSI result for Pseudomonadaceae?
what is the most frequently isolated Pseudomonadaceae?
this organism is prevalent in burn infections, cystic fibrosis superinfections and is characterized by mucoid morphology.
This organism is seen in acute leukemia, UTIs, Otitis media, wound infections, necrotizing keratitis, bone infections, and organ transplant infections.
P. aeruginosa may cause what condition in IV drug users?
what organism may cause fatal lower respiratory tract infections in immunocompromised patients?
what are the five toxins and enzymes found in P. aeruginosa?
What is the motility result for Pseudomonas aeruginosa?
what is the nitrate reduction result for P. aeruginosa?
P. aeruginosa is susceptible to what antibiotic?
what are the four moist places that P. aeruginosa is isolated from?
weeping cutaneous wounds
P. aeruginosa has good growth on BAP and MAC and grows best at what temperature?
this organism has a ground glass appearance resembling fish scales on BAP?
what type of hemolysis does P. aeruginosa exhibit?
this organism produces a blue green pigment and a strong grape-like or fruity smell on the BAP.
What is the appearance of P. aeruginosa on MAC?
spreading or spindle shaped
jP. aeruginosa growth is _______ on HE?
what is the pigment producer and color of P. aeruginosa on HE?
what two things cause a yellow color for P. aeruginosa on the HE?
this Pseudomonas spp is an uncommon cause of infection and mostly isolated from respiratory tract.
P. fluorescens is similar to P. aeruginosa in that it produces what?
Fluorescens (fluorescein or pyoverdin)
true or false
P. fluorescens produces pyocyanin
only P. aeruginosa produces this pigment
this ubiquitous organism is usually a contaminant but is seen in debilitated patients with wound infections, abscesses, bacteremia, pneumonia, or UTIs.
Stenotrophomonas maltophila was formerly classified under what two genus?
This organism is similar to Pseudomonads except oxidase =.
Stenotrophomonas maltophila produces what oxidase result?
S. maltophila is ________ to most anti-pseudomonal drugs.
this organism is normal flora of mucous membrane and may cause conjunctivitis.
Infections of this organism are caused by person's endogenous strain.
what is this organism?
Gram negative coccobacilli
nonsaccharolytic (does not oxidize glucose)
poor growth on MAC
what are the four types of Acinetobacter spp.?
This ubiquitous organism is seen in compromised patients on respirators and is resistant to most antibiotics.
Acinetobacter spp. may colonize moist skin in what two areas?
Acinetobacter is seen as Gram negative coccobacilli in what smears?
Acinetobacter spp is seen as gram negative diplococcoid in what type of smears?
what is the oxidase result for Acinetobacter spp.?
What is this organism?
nitrate reduction (=)
Growth on MAC
Oxidizes glucose and lactose
how are Saccharolytic and Asacchrolytic Acinetobacter spp differentiated?
what is the natural habitat of Chryseobacterium meningiosepticum?
this organism is seen in the contamination of hospital water supplies, nebulizers, water baths, and saline.
this organism can survive tap water chlorine.
This organism has caused several epidemics with high mortality rates in hospital nurseries due to neonatal meningitis and bacteremia.
C. meningiosepticum is seen particularly in ________ babies.
What are the Gram stain characteristics of C. meningiosepticum?
Gram negative Bacilli
long, thin with bulbous ends
C. meningiosepticum has what type of motility?
C. meningiosepticum has ______ to _________ variable growth on MAC?
C. meningiosepticum is a chromogenic on BAP that produces what color after 24-48 hours.
light yellow to orange
what is the indole result of C. meningiosepticum?
what is used as a reference in the identification of C. meningiosepticum?
what is the most frequently isolated Alcaligenes species?
A. faecalis is typicly a ________ and ________ inhabitant?
Alcaligenes faecalis is seen in what three nosocomial infections?
Alcaligenes faecalis is seen in what three opportunistic infections?
This opportunistic bacteria is a gram negative bacilli that is poorly defined and difficult to identify.
Alcaligenes faecalis does not oxidize what sugar?
A. faecalis moves by what type of flagellation?
what is the meaning of nonsaccharolytic?
does not oxidize glucose
A. faecalis has _____ growtho on MAC?
Burkholderia cepacia is pathogenic in what four coditions?
respiratory tract infections
Burkholderia cepacia is what color on the CHOC?
what is the LDC result for burkholderia?
Burkholderia cepacia has ________ oxidation of glucose, lactose, and mannitol
B. cepacia has what motility result?
B. pseudomallei can cause what disorder which can be used as a possible bioweapon?
which burkholderia species is mucoid to dry with variable oxidation of glucose, lactose, mannitol?
this organism has a rare but wide range of infections, mostly in horses?
Burkholderia mallei has what type of morphology?
how is B. cepacia differentiated from B. pseudomallei and B. mallei?
green color on CHOC
how is B. pseudomallei and B. mallei differentiated?
the ID of non-fermenters is used mostly for definitive ID of what organism?
ID of non fermenters is based on the identification of what two test?
what are the three rapid and differential testings for Pseudomonas?
growth at 42
this agar is selective for isolation of Pseudomonas spp.?
cetrimide agar (pseudosel agar)
the cetrimide agar is used for presumptive ID of what spp.?
Cetrimide agar enhances production of what?
P. aeruginosa on a cetrimide agar fluoresces under what wavelength light?
What does FLN stand for in the pickett's FLN media?
what is the colormetric indicator in the Pickett's FLN medium?
Pickett's FLN medium should be incubated for how long, at what temp?
the Picketts FLN medium has what color fluorescence under black light?
A yellow color on the Pickett's FLN medium indicates what?
lactose to acid
Seller's medium is used to differentiate what three organisms?
what are the four packaged microbial identification systems?
REMEL N/F SYSTEM
what does ATCC stand for?
american type culture collection
what is the fatality rate of primary pneumonia caused by legionaires disease?
this is a self limited, non-fatal, acute, nonpneumonic, febrile illness caused by legionellosis.
Legionella species are ________, primarily aquatic saprophytes
what are the four major reservoirs that legionellacea is isolated from?
warm, fresh water sites
stored potable water
lakes, rivers, marine waters
Legionellaceae are small bacilli to pleomorphic filamentous bacilli that may be over ____ in length.
Legionellaceae requres what two things for nutrition?
what pH is Legionellaceae grown at?
true or false
Legionellaceae is usually motile
the cell wall of this bacteria has a distinctive unique branced chain fo cellular fatty acids.
what are the four recommended specimens for legionella?
respiratory tract secretions
fluids (especially sputum)
what broth prevents specimen desiccation of legionella?
what genus will hold up for 48 hours at 5
what stains are preferred on histological samples of legionella?
what is the primary growth medium for legionella?
Supplemented-buffered charcoal yeast extract (BCYE) medium
true or false
Legionella will not grow on commonly employed laboratory media
what legionella samples should be centrifuged?
with which disease should acid be added to a sample for better recovery of legionella
what should be done to tissue before plating for legionella?
how long should Legionella be incubated at 35
what organism is incubated for two weeks at 35
C with 5-10% CO2 and 80-90% humidity?
Legionella should be examined daily for how long?
after how many days will macroscopic colonies of Legionella appear on a BYCE?
after five days Legionella will have what kind of morphology with internal granular speckling?
true of false
ID to species level of Legionella is not important
sensitivity testing of legionella is ___ performed.
these are gram negative cocci cells that occur as diplococci with adjacent sides flattened resembling kidney beans.
Neisseriaceae are fastidious and requre blood as a source of what?
atmosphereic requirements of Neisseriaceae inclued increased what?
what is the optimum growth temperature of Neisseriaceae?
what is the cytochrome oxidase test for Neisseriaceae?
what Neisseria species may cause purulent arthritis, sterility, and death
what is this neisseria?
Lactose (ONPG): =
on what medias will N. gonorrhoeae appear medium butyraceous, convex, and entire?
this organism may be normal flora of the nasopharynx, but can also cause fulminating meningitis.
N. gonorrhoeae will not grow on what media?
this organism gram stains identical to N. gonorrhoeae
what is this Neisseria species?
Lactose (ONPG): =
N. lactamica is normal flora where?
this organism is usually avirulent, but may rarely cause bacteremia, endocarditis and meningitis.
What is this Neisseria?
Lactose (ONPG): +
Moraxella catarrhalis is normal flora where?
upper respiratory tract
female genital tract
what is this species of Neisseria?
Lactose (ONPG: =
B-lactamase: 95% +
Neisseriaceae biochemical identification is based on what four carbohydrates?
what type of woll tipped swab is used for collection of Neisseriaceae?
how is presumptive reporting of Neisseria Gonorrhoeae performed?
many PMN's and Gram negative diplococci, occuring both intra- and extracellularly, morphologically resembling N. gonorrhoeae
Presumptive reporting of Neisseriaceae can only be performed on what patients?
symptomatic male with urethritis
Bordatella pertussis causes what two conditins?
This organism causes less severe pertussis-like symptoms.
What is the organism that is commensal in dogs, cats, and rabbits that may cause URI in immunoicompromised patients.
what are the Gram stain characteristics of Bordetella?
gram negative coccobacillus
occur singly or in pairs
how long is the counterstain added for ID of bordetella?
what counterstain is used for Bordetella?
This is among the most fastidious bacteria known.
B. pertussis shows no growth on infusion agar or ___.
what are the three recommended medias for B. pertussis?
fresh Bordet-Gengou (BG) agar
B. pertussis should be collected using __ nasopharyngeal calcium alginate swabs.
plastic kills what organism?
Direct plating of B. pertussis should be performed at bedside on what plate?
when direct plating of B. pertussis is impossible what media should be used?
RL semisolid transport media
B pertussis should be incubated at 35
C for how many days with high humidity?
colonial morphology of B. pertussis is typically visible after how many days?
this organism has a clonial morphology that is usually less than 1mm and has a pearl like luster or resembling mercury droplets.
B. pertussis should be examind with what type of microscope?
what testing is used for better specificity of B. pertussis?
serological confirmation of B. pertussis is done with what type of testing?
B. pertussis has what oxidase and motility results?
B. parapertussis has what oxidase and motility results?
B. bronchiseptica has what oxidase and motility results?
what are the four species of brucella?
This is an obligate intracellular parasite which causes epizootic abortions in a variety of animals.
This organism is associated with mandatory pasteurization of all commercial dairy products.
Extensive compulsory vaccination programs for susceptible animals have successfully controlled infection by this organism in a few countries.
In the US, ________ largely occurs in persons with occupational or vocational exposure to animals or lab cultures.
what is the means of transmission of Brucella?
Ingestion of contaminated dairy products
Brucella can cause what type of fever?
Undulant (Malta) fever
what are the gram stain characteristics of Brucella
Gram negative Coccobacillus
pleomorphic short rods
how long should brucella be counterstained?
Brucella is non motile and typically _____ growing.
what class of pathogen is brucella?
what is the culture media for brucella?
Brucella agar with 5% serum
what is the incubation time for brucella?
This organism is transmitted by sand fles and causes Carrion's disease.
This organism is transmitted by human body louse and causes trench fever.
what three Bartonella species are transmitted by cats?
Bartonella are gram negative rods that are negative for what four biochemical tests?
what is the specimen for Bartonella?
Blood samples of Bartonella should be plated on what three medias with 5-10% CO2 and high humidity?
this is the etiological agent of tularemia.
this is an acute, moderate, febire infection that is also Zoonotic.
What types of tularemia have the highest mortality rates?
what organism is transmitted by blood sucking arthropods and wild rabbits, squirrels and game birds?
what are the four means of transmission of Francisella?
Handling of infected animal carcasses
Ingestion of improperly cooked meats/ contaminated water
inhalation of airborne organism
This highly virulent tularemia is prevalent in North America and is associated with tick-borne rabbits.
Classical tularemia (type A)
Most cases of this disease are characterized by the formation of a tender, erythematous papule at the portal of entry, secondary pneumonia may occur.
what safety precautions should be taken when handling Francisella?
which organism that will penetrate skin should be sent to the CDC.
what are the recommended specimens during the systemic phase of tularemia?
Francisella is ______ recovered from blood culture.
what is the recommended media for Francisella?
Glucose-Cystine-Blood agar (GCBA)
Francisella has a mucoid, droplike morphology within ______ hours.
in Francisella there will be a slight ______ of agar immediately beneath colony, particularly after prolonged incubation
what stain preparations more readily demonstrate characteristic morphology of Francisella?
Francisella cells are highly _________ in older cultures.
Francisella reproduces in what three ways?
what is used to stimulate growth of Francisella?
true or false
Francisella is a nonmotile obligate aerobe.
Francisella is Identified via serological testing or _________.
What are the oxidase and catalase results of Francisella?
: + (weak)