Aerobic Gram Negative Rods and Cocci 7.8

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Aerobic Gram Negative Rods and Cocci 7.8
2010-09-23 19:14:00
Aerobic Gram Negative rods Cocci Microbiology NSHS MLT

Microbiology Unit 7.8 Aerobic Gram Negative Rods and Cocci
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  1. Legionella pneumophila accounts for what percent of documented legionellosis?
  2. how many serotypes of legionella pneumophila are there?
  3. How many species and serotypes are there for legionella spp.?
    • 16 species
    • 21 serotypes
  4. Pseudomonadaceae have what general Gram stain characteristics?
    Gram negative rods or coccobacilli
  5. Pseudomonadaceae are what type of oxygen users?
    strictly aerobic
  6. motile species of Pseudomonadaceae have what type of flagellation.
  7. Pseudomonadaceae organisms degrade carbohydrates via ______ rather than fermentative pathway.
  8. Pseudomonadaceae are all typically non-________ fermenters.
  9. what is the TSI result for Pseudomonadaceae?
  10. what is the most frequently isolated Pseudomonadaceae?
    Pseudomonas aeruginosa
  11. this organism is prevalent in burn infections, cystic fibrosis superinfections and is characterized by mucoid morphology.
    P. aeruginosa
  12. This organism is seen in acute leukemia, UTIs, Otitis media, wound infections, necrotizing keratitis, bone infections, and organ transplant infections.
    P. aeruginosa
  13. P. aeruginosa may cause what condition in IV drug users?
  14. what organism may cause fatal lower respiratory tract infections in immunocompromised patients?
    P. aeruginosa
  15. what are the five toxins and enzymes found in P. aeruginosa?
    • Exotoxin A
    • Alginate
    • Proteolytic enzymes
    • Pili
    • Endotoxin
  16. What is the motility result for Pseudomonas aeruginosa?
  17. what is the nitrate reduction result for P. aeruginosa?
  18. P. aeruginosa is susceptible to what antibiotic?
  19. what are the four moist places that P. aeruginosa is isolated from?
    • Ear
    • Tracheotomies
    • indwelling catheters
    • weeping cutaneous wounds
  20. P. aeruginosa has good growth on BAP and MAC and grows best at what temperature?
  21. this organism has a ground glass appearance resembling fish scales on BAP?
    P. aeruginosa
  22. what type of hemolysis does P. aeruginosa exhibit?
  23. this organism produces a blue green pigment and a strong grape-like or fruity smell on the BAP.
    Pseudomona aeruginosa
  24. What is the appearance of P. aeruginosa on MAC?
    • colorless
    • flat
    • irregular
    • spreading or spindle shaped
  25. jP. aeruginosa growth is _______ on HE?
  26. what is the pigment producer and color of P. aeruginosa on HE?
    • pyocyanin
    • Blue
  27. what two things cause a yellow color for P. aeruginosa on the HE?
    • pyoverdin
    • fluorescein
  28. this Pseudomonas spp is an uncommon cause of infection and mostly isolated from respiratory tract.
    P. fluorescens
  29. P. fluorescens is similar to P. aeruginosa in that it produces what?
    Fluorescens (fluorescein or pyoverdin)
  30. true or false
    P. fluorescens produces pyocyanin
    • False
    • only P. aeruginosa produces this pigment
  31. this ubiquitous organism is usually a contaminant but is seen in debilitated patients with wound infections, abscesses, bacteremia, pneumonia, or UTIs.
    Stenotrophomonas maltophila
  32. Stenotrophomonas maltophila was formerly classified under what two genus?
    • pseudomonas
    • Xanthomonas
  33. This organism is similar to Pseudomonads except oxidase =.
    Stenotrophomonas maltophila
  34. Stenotrophomonas maltophila produces what oxidase result?
  35. S. maltophila is ________ to most anti-pseudomonal drugs.
  36. this organism is normal flora of mucous membrane and may cause conjunctivitis.
    Moraxella lacunata
  37. Infections of this organism are caused by person's endogenous strain.
    Moraxella lacunata
  38. what is this organism?
    Gram negative coccobacilli
    oxidase (+)
    nonsaccharolytic (does not oxidize glucose)
    poor growth on MAC
    Moraxella lacunata
  39. what are the four types of Acinetobacter spp.?
    • Saccharolytic, non-hemolytic
    • Asaccharolytic, non-hemolytic
    • Saccharolytic, hemolytic
    • Asaccharolytic, hemolytic
  40. This ubiquitous organism is seen in compromised patients on respirators and is resistant to most antibiotics.
    Acinetobacter spp.
  41. Acinetobacter spp. may colonize moist skin in what two areas?
    • GU tract
    • Respiratory tract
  42. Acinetobacter is seen as Gram negative coccobacilli in what smears?
    culture smears
  43. Acinetobacter spp is seen as gram negative diplococcoid in what type of smears?
    clinical smears
  44. what is the oxidase result for Acinetobacter spp.?
  45. What is this organism?
    oxidase (=)
    non motile
    nitrate reduction (=)
    Growth on MAC
    Oxidizes glucose and lactose
    Acinetobacter spp.
  46. how are Saccharolytic and Asacchrolytic Acinetobacter spp differentiated?
    • glucose oxidation
    • Saccharolytic (+)
    • Asacchrolytic (=)
  47. what is the natural habitat of Chryseobacterium meningiosepticum?
    • Soil
    • plant
    • water
    • not human
  48. this organism is seen in the contamination of hospital water supplies, nebulizers, water baths, and saline.
    C. meningiosepticum
  49. this organism can survive tap water chlorine.
    C. meningiosepticum
  50. This organism has caused several epidemics with high mortality rates in hospital nurseries due to neonatal meningitis and bacteremia.
    C. meningiosepticum
  51. C. meningiosepticum is seen particularly in ________ babies.
  52. What are the Gram stain characteristics of C. meningiosepticum?
    • Gram negative Bacilli
    • long, thin with bulbous ends
  53. C. meningiosepticum has what type of motility?
    non motile
  54. C. meningiosepticum has ______ to _________ variable growth on MAC?
    • poor
    • negative
  55. C. meningiosepticum is a chromogenic on BAP that produces what color after 24-48 hours.
    light yellow to orange
  56. what is the indole result of C. meningiosepticum?
  57. what is used as a reference in the identification of C. meningiosepticum?
  58. what is the most frequently isolated Alcaligenes species?
    Alcaligenes faecalis
  59. A. faecalis is typicly a ________ and ________ inhabitant?
    • water
    • soil
  60. Alcaligenes faecalis is seen in what three nosocomial infections?
    • respirator
    • hemodialysis
    • intravenous systems
  61. Alcaligenes faecalis is seen in what three opportunistic infections?
    • respiratory
    • UTI
    • blood
  62. This opportunistic bacteria is a gram negative bacilli that is poorly defined and difficult to identify.
    Alcaligenes faecalis
  63. Alcaligenes faecalis does not oxidize what sugar?
  64. A. faecalis moves by what type of flagellation?
  65. what is the meaning of nonsaccharolytic?
    does not oxidize glucose
  66. A. faecalis has _____ growtho on MAC?
  67. Burkholderia cepacia is pathogenic in what four coditions?
    • cystic fibrosis
    • CGD
    • UTI
    • respiratory tract infections
  68. Burkholderia cepacia is what color on the CHOC?
  69. what is the LDC result for burkholderia?
  70. Burkholderia cepacia has ________ oxidation of glucose, lactose, and mannitol
  71. B. cepacia has what motility result?
  72. B. pseudomallei can cause what disorder which can be used as a possible bioweapon?
  73. which burkholderia species is mucoid to dry with variable oxidation of glucose, lactose, mannitol?
    B. pseudomallei
  74. this organism has a rare but wide range of infections, mostly in horses?
    Burkolderia mallei
  75. Burkholderia mallei has what type of morphology?
  76. how is B. cepacia differentiated from B. pseudomallei and B. mallei?
    • LDC +
    • green color on CHOC
  77. how is B. pseudomallei and B. mallei differentiated?
    • B. pseudomallei:+
    • B. mallei:=
  78. the ID of non-fermenters is used mostly for definitive ID of what organism?
    P. aeruginosa
  79. ID of non fermenters is based on the identification of what two test?
    • motility
    • cytochrome oxidase
  80. what are the three rapid and differential testings for Pseudomonas?
    • growth at 42oC
    • pyocyanin production
    • denitrification
  81. this agar is selective for isolation of Pseudomonas spp.?
    cetrimide agar (pseudosel agar)
  82. the cetrimide agar is used for presumptive ID of what spp.?
    P. aeruginosa
  83. Cetrimide agar enhances production of what?
    pyocyanin pigment
  84. P. aeruginosa on a cetrimide agar fluoresces under what wavelength light?
    ultraviolet (254nm)
  85. What does FLN stand for in the pickett's FLN media?
    • fluorescence
    • lactose
    • nitrate
  86. what is the colormetric indicator in the Pickett's FLN medium?
    phenol red
  87. Pickett's FLN medium should be incubated for how long, at what temp?
    • 18-24 hours
    • 35oC
  88. the Picketts FLN medium has what color fluorescence under black light?
  89. A yellow color on the Pickett's FLN medium indicates what?
    lactose to acid
  90. Seller's medium is used to differentiate what three organisms?
    • P. aeruginosa
    • Acinetobacter calcoaceticus
    • Alcaligenes
  91. what are the four packaged microbial identification systems?
    • API NFT
  92. what does ATCC stand for?
    american type culture collection
  93. what is the fatality rate of primary pneumonia caused by legionaires disease?
  94. this is a self limited, non-fatal, acute, nonpneumonic, febrile illness caused by legionellosis.
    pontiac fever
  95. Legionella species are ________, primarily aquatic saprophytes
  96. what are the four major reservoirs that legionellacea is isolated from?
    • warm, fresh water sites
    • air-conditioning units
    • stored potable water
    • lakes, rivers, marine waters
  97. Legionellaceae are small bacilli to pleomorphic filamentous bacilli that may be over ____ in length.
  98. Legionellaceae requres what two things for nutrition?
    • L-cysteine
    • iron
  99. what pH is Legionellaceae grown at?
  100. true or false
    Legionellaceae is usually motile
  101. the cell wall of this bacteria has a distinctive unique branced chain fo cellular fatty acids.
  102. what are the four recommended specimens for legionella?
    • respiratory tract secretions
    • tissues
    • fluids (especially sputum)
    • blood
  103. what broth prevents specimen desiccation of legionella?
  104. what genus will hold up for 48 hours at 5oC?
  105. what stains are preferred on histological samples of legionella?
    • Giemsa
    • Silver stain
  106. what is the primary growth medium for legionella?
    Supplemented-buffered charcoal yeast extract (BCYE) medium
  107. true or false
    Legionella will not grow on commonly employed laboratory media
  108. what legionella samples should be centrifuged?
  109. with which disease should acid be added to a sample for better recovery of legionella
    cystic fibrosis
  110. what should be done to tissue before plating for legionella?
  111. how long should Legionella be incubated at 35oC?
    2 weeks
  112. what organism is incubated for two weeks at 35oC with 5-10% CO2 and 80-90% humidity?
  113. Legionella should be examined daily for how long?
    one week
  114. after how many days will macroscopic colonies of Legionella appear on a BYCE?
    3-4 days
  115. after five days Legionella will have what kind of morphology with internal granular speckling?
    cut glass
  116. true of false
    ID to species level of Legionella is not important
  117. sensitivity testing of legionella is ___ performed.
  118. these are gram negative cocci cells that occur as diplococci with adjacent sides flattened resembling kidney beans.
  119. Neisseriaceae are fastidious and requre blood as a source of what?
  120. atmosphereic requirements of Neisseriaceae inclued increased what?
  121. what is the optimum growth temperature of Neisseriaceae?
  122. what is the cytochrome oxidase test for Neisseriaceae?
  123. what Neisseria species may cause purulent arthritis, sterility, and death
    N. gonorrhoeae
  124. what is this neisseria?
    Glucose: +
    Maltose =
    Lactose (ONPG): =
    sucrose: =
    N. gonorrhoeae
  125. on what medias will N. gonorrhoeae appear medium butyraceous, convex, and entire?
    • Choc
    • MTM
  126. this organism may be normal flora of the nasopharynx, but can also cause fulminating meningitis.
    N. meningitidis
  127. N. gonorrhoeae will not grow on what media?
  128. this organism gram stains identical to N. gonorrhoeae
    N. meningitidis
  129. what is this Neisseria species?
    Glucose: +
    Maltose: +
    Lactose (ONPG): =
    Sucrose: =
    N. meningitidis
  130. N. lactamica is normal flora where?
    • oropharynx
    • nasopharynx
  131. this organism is usually avirulent, but may rarely cause bacteremia, endocarditis and meningitis.
    N. lactamica
  132. What is this Neisseria?
    Glucose: +
    Maltose: +
    Lactose (ONPG): +
    Sucrose: =
    N. lactamica
  133. Moraxella catarrhalis is normal flora where?
    • upper respiratory tract
    • female genital tract
  134. what is this species of Neisseria?
    glucose: =
    Maltose: =
    Lactose (ONPG: =
    Sucrose: =
    Nitrate: +
    DNAse: +
    B-lactamase: 95% +
    Moraxella catarrhalis
  135. Neisseriaceae biochemical identification is based on what four carbohydrates?
    • Glucose
    • maltose
    • lactose
    • sucrose
  136. what type of woll tipped swab is used for collection of Neisseriaceae?
    calcium alginate
  137. how is presumptive reporting of Neisseria Gonorrhoeae performed?
    many PMN's and Gram negative diplococci, occuring both intra- and extracellularly, morphologically resembling N. gonorrhoeae
  138. Presumptive reporting of Neisseriaceae can only be performed on what patients?
    symptomatic male with urethritis
  139. Bordatella pertussis causes what two conditins?
    • Whooping cough
    • Respiratory infections
  140. This organism causes less severe pertussis-like symptoms.
    Bordetella parapertussis
  141. What is the organism that is commensal in dogs, cats, and rabbits that may cause URI in immunoicompromised patients.
    Bordetella bronchiseptica
  142. what are the Gram stain characteristics of Bordetella?
    • gram negative coccobacillus
    • occur singly or in pairs
  143. how long is the counterstain added for ID of bordetella?
    2 min
  144. what counterstain is used for Bordetella?
    0.2% fuchsin
  145. This is among the most fastidious bacteria known.
    B. pertussis
  146. B. pertussis shows no growth on infusion agar or ___.
  147. what are the three recommended medias for B. pertussis?
    • fresh Bordet-Gengou (BG) agar
    • Regan-Lowe
    • Modified Jones-Kendrick
  148. B. pertussis should be collected using __ nasopharyngeal calcium alginate swabs.
  149. plastic kills what organism?
    B. pertussis
  150. Direct plating of B. pertussis should be performed at bedside on what plate?
  151. when direct plating of B. pertussis is impossible what media should be used?
    RL semisolid transport media
  152. B pertussis should be incubated at 35oC for how many days with high humidity?
    12 days
  153. colonial morphology of B. pertussis is typically visible after how many days?
  154. this organism has a clonial morphology that is usually less than 1mm and has a pearl like luster or resembling mercury droplets.
    B. pertussis
  155. B. pertussis should be examind with what type of microscope?
    dissecting microscope
  156. what testing is used for better specificity of B. pertussis?
  157. serological confirmation of B. pertussis is done with what type of testing?
    FA testing
  158. B. pertussis has what oxidase and motility results?
    • Oxidase: +
    • Motility: =
  159. B. parapertussis has what oxidase and motility results?
    • oxidase: =
    • motility: =
  160. B. bronchiseptica has what oxidase and motility results?
    • Oxidae: +
    • Motility: +
  161. what are the four species of brucella?
    • B. melitensis
    • B. abortus
    • B. suis
    • B. canis
  162. This is an obligate intracellular parasite which causes epizootic abortions in a variety of animals.
  163. This organism is associated with mandatory pasteurization of all commercial dairy products.
  164. Extensive compulsory vaccination programs for susceptible animals have successfully controlled infection by this organism in a few countries.
  165. In the US, ________ largely occurs in persons with occupational or vocational exposure to animals or lab cultures.
  166. what is the means of transmission of Brucella?
    • direct contact
    • Ingestion of contaminated dairy products
  167. Brucella can cause what type of fever?
    Undulant (Malta) fever
  168. what are the gram stain characteristics of Brucella
    • Gram negative Coccobacillus
    • pleomorphic short rods
    • pale staining
  169. how long should brucella be counterstained?
    1-3 min
  170. Brucella is non motile and typically _____ growing.
  171. what class of pathogen is brucella?
  172. what is the culture media for brucella?
    Brucella agar with 5% serum
  173. what is the incubation time for brucella?
    3 week
  174. This organism is transmitted by sand fles and causes Carrion's disease.
    B. bacilliformis
  175. This organism is transmitted by human body louse and causes trench fever.
    B. quintana
  176. what three Bartonella species are transmitted by cats?
    • B. henselae
    • B. clarridgeiae
    • B. elizabethae
  177. Bartonella are gram negative rods that are negative for what four biochemical tests?
    • oxidase
    • urease
    • nitrate reduction
    • catalase
  178. what is the specimen for Bartonella?
  179. Blood samples of Bartonella should be plated on what three medias with 5-10% CO2 and high humidity?
    • Choc
    • BAP
    • CNA
  180. this is the etiological agent of tularemia.
  181. this is an acute, moderate, febire infection that is also Zoonotic.
  182. What types of tularemia have the highest mortality rates?
    • Typhoidal
    • pulmonary
  183. what organism is transmitted by blood sucking arthropods and wild rabbits, squirrels and game birds?
  184. what are the four means of transmission of Francisella?
    • Handling of infected animal carcasses
    • Insect bites
    • Ingestion of improperly cooked meats/ contaminated water
    • inhalation of airborne organism
  185. This highly virulent tularemia is prevalent in North America and is associated with tick-borne rabbits.
    Classical tularemia (type A)
  186. Most cases of this disease are characterized by the formation of a tender, erythematous papule at the portal of entry, secondary pneumonia may occur.
  187. what safety precautions should be taken when handling Francisella?
    • vented hood
    • surgical gloves
  188. which organism that will penetrate skin should be sent to the CDC.
  189. what are the recommended specimens during the systemic phase of tularemia?
    • sputum
    • gastric aspirates
  190. Francisella is ______ recovered from blood culture.
  191. what is the recommended media for Francisella?
    Glucose-Cystine-Blood agar (GCBA)
  192. Francisella has a mucoid, droplike morphology within ______ hours.
    48-72 hours
  193. in Francisella there will be a slight ______ of agar immediately beneath colony, particularly after prolonged incubation
  194. what stain preparations more readily demonstrate characteristic morphology of Francisella?
  195. Francisella cells are highly _________ in older cultures.
  196. Francisella reproduces in what three ways?
    • buds
    • binary fission
    • filaments
  197. what is used to stimulate growth of Francisella?
  198. true or false
    Francisella is a nonmotile obligate aerobe.
  199. Francisella is Identified via serological testing or _________.
    DNA probe
  200. What are the oxidase and catalase results of Francisella?
    • oxidase: =
    • catalase: + (weak)