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Your role as a leader
- Respond ethically,
- positively, and powerfully to the many transformations that are occurring in
- our world.
How to become a leader?
–Know your own values as well as your organization’s ethical code.
- –Make good decisions - often very
- quickly and without complete information.
–Know how to think analytically - while also relying on your intuition.
- –Build strong, trusting relationships with others and communicate well with people at all levels of the
- –Develop your self-awareness, your capacity for empathy and managing yourself well in
- stressful situations.
- Understand and manage your own and
- others’ emotions (EI).
Why Do Managers Have to Be Leaders?
- •Become able to inspire
- people, build powerful and effective teams, deal with conflict and guide, coach
- and mentor others.
- •Have a much
- better chance of harnessing the brain power we need to face the challenges and
- opportunities in
- our organizations, our communities and the world.
What is the difference in a manager and a leader?
A manager is …
- •an individual
- who makes plans; organizes and controls people, production, and services; and
- who regulates or deploys resources.
- A leader is
- a person
- who is out in front, influencing and inspiring people to follow
- of the research on managerial and leadership behaviors reinforces the
- assumption that only a few individuals (usually those at the top of an
- organization) are responsible for activities such as strategic planning,
- crafting and communicating a vision, or inspiring people to pursue
- organizational goals. The differentiation between management and leadership
- that has been prevalent for many years is no longer useful.
- it is helpful to look at the early research and perspectives upon which the
- differentiation was based. Once we understand these assumptions, we can begin
- to adjust them to fit today’s world.
Managers tend to…
- •Be comfortable
- with order.
- •Be concerned with
- how things get done.
- •Play for time and
- delay major decisions.
- •Identify goals
- that arise out of necessity.
Leaders tend to…
- •Create and provide
- resources through motivation.
- •Be comfortable
- with uncertainty.
- •Function well in
- chaotic environments.
- •Be concerned with
- what events and decisions mean to people.
- •Seek solutions
- that do not require compromise.
- •Take highly
- personal attitudes toward goals.
- •Identify goals
- that arise out of desire.
- •Model developed by following managers
- on the job and recording daily activities.
- of these roles and activities are now expected of more people—people who may not
- formally be called “managers.
- •Many businesses and organizations have streamlined
- operations and decision making.
- •Whereas it used to be that only managers—and many times,
- senior managers—did things like disseminate information, foster innovation, or
- negotiate contracts, nowadays nonmanagerial staff is often empowered to do these things.
Coming Leadership Gap
- people are promoted to their level of incompetence!
- are often not equipped for leadership.
- are not ready to manage people.
- are not skilled at strategic planning.
- is an opportunity for those who possess these skills.
- à personal
- characteristics and physical, intellectual, and psychological traits.
- –Leadership à behaviors and styles, and the
- importance of being able to adapt one’s approach to a particular situation.
Recent leadership studies
- to Great Leadership à leadership
- competencies, emotional intelligence, ethics, and the responsible use of power.
- of good leadership à self
- awareness: the
- capacity to reflect on, articulate and understand one’s emotions, thought processes, and physical
- responses to certain situations (like stress).
- It is not just leaders who can be
- judged as effective or ineffective. The same process holds true for followers.
- –Good followers à actively
- support good leaders and respond appropriately to bad leaders.
- characteristics of both leadership and followership are likely to be different
- from culture to culture.
- We all need to
- learn effective followership tools à managing up and effective resistance.
Types of Followers
•Isolates à nonresponsive or indifferent to their leaders.
- •Bystanders à not engaged in the
- life of the organization.
- •Participants à actively engaged in
- the organization and make an effort to support and impact the organization.
- •Activists à feel more strongly
- about their organizations and leaders than participants and act accordingly.
- Vocal either when positive or negative.
- •Diehards à passionate about an idea, a person, or both and will
- give all for them.
Leadership is learned...
secrets to becoming an
- •Emotional and social competence:
- The secret to effective leadership.
The secret to influential leadership.
The secret to responsible leadership.
What Is the Secret to
•We must master competencies related to social and emotional intelligence.
- 2.Social and emotional intelligence
- or abilities that include both intent and action, and that can be directly
- linked to how well a person performs on a task or in a job.
Social and emotional intelligence
- linked to self awareness, self-management, social awareness, and relationship
Components of an effecive leader:
- à needs
- or drives that fuel action.
- à physical
- or psychological characteristics that lead to consistent ways of responding to
- à attitudes,
- values, and self-image—all powerful drivers of actions.
- à information
- that a person has at his or her disposal and their overall ability to find it.
- à learned
- abilities needed to perform tasks
- just to do a job.
- –Basic expertise,
- experience, and many cognitive abilities.
- outstanding performance.
- –Social and emotional intelligence, pattern recognition and systems
- use of tools
- and processes related
- to a specialized field.
- •ability to see the “big
- picture” in systems such as
- organizations or groups (pattern recognition) or to analyze complex situations and to understand how all
- things and people relate to one another (systems thinking).
- support the development of strong
- working relationships with
- colleagues, direct reports, upper management, and customers.
Technical, Cognitive and Relational
- skills are especially critical in areas such as engineering, finance, and
- information technology
- main cognitive competencies—pattern recognition and systems thinking—are
- crucial in many jobs today
- management applications of relational competencies includes team work,
- coaching, monitoring performance, and providing feedback
- •à A set of competencies
- that are directly related to success in a job that are grouped into
- job-relevant categories.
- –Thousands of competency models are
- in use in organizations today.
- ones are well-researched and based on the study of people, jobs, and organizational contexts.
A Comprehensive Management Competency Model
- When it comes to leadership, one subset of competencies
- makes all the difference: competencies related to social and emotional intelligence.
- 1. Goals and actions skills- efficiencey orientation, diagnostic use of concepts, proactivity.
- 2. Leadership skills- conceptualization, oral presentation, logical thought, self confidence.
- 3. People management skills- Socialized power, managing group process, prositive regard, accurate self assessment
- 4. Directing skills- developing other, spontaneilty, use of unilateral power
- 5. focus on others- concern for close relationships, stamina, objectivity, self control
- Organizations characterized by a powerful and positive culture
- in which people have a shared sense of excitement and commitment to mutual
- Socially and emotionally intelligent, visionary people who lead
- and manage in ways that enable everyone to contribute their very vest.
- The ability to notice
- and understand one’s emotions and their effects.
The Foundation of Social and Emotional Intelligence
- are linked to our ability to think clearly, make good decisions, and focus on
- is a term used to
- describe how emotions are contagious, and powerful driver of our feelings,
- thoughts and behaviors.
- *Our brains are complex structures, and there is an important relationship between neurophysiology (how the brain
- works), psychology (personality,
- motives, and traits), and values
- (deeply held beliefs about how to act on our ideals).
§Leadership = Influence
- §Leaders often don’t really think about how to
- influence their people
§Talking is not influencing
§Leaders need a THEORY of influence!!!
- §No silver bullets! Attack from multiple
influence over and through others; the ability to get people to do what one desires by changing how those people think, feel, or act.
The challenge … of power
- •Many people are uncomfortable with the idea of
- wielding power and with the idea that others might use power to influence
•The common view of ‘power’ is that with it come victims.
- •It is linked closely to culture. Different cultures view, use and
- distribute power differently.
- many things, including internal competition and the pursuit of personal goals
- at the expense of others or the organization. As distasteful as they are to
- most people, organizational politics are a reality in most organizations. And
- if you don’t understand them, you can’t help change the situation for the
- is a fact of social life in organizations, and managers and leaders need to
- understand how to use it for the benefit of their employees, the organization,
- and the people and communities that the organization serves.
Sources of Power
- Power à The ability to
- influence others by right of one’s position in an organization, the office held, or formal authority.
- Power à The ability to
- influence others by giving or withholding rewards such as pay, promotions, time off, attractive projects,
- learning experiences, and the like.
- Power à The attempt to
- influence others through punishment.
- Power à The ability to
- influence others through a combination of special knowledge and/or skills.
- Power à Power that comes from
- characteristics that
- people value and want to emulate and that cause people to feel respect or
Managerial Power =
Position Power + Personal Power
–Based on things managers can offer to others.
- –Rewards: "If you do what I ask, I'll give you a
- –Coercion: "If you don't do what I ask, I'll punish
- –Legitimacy: "Because I am the boss; you must do as
- I ask."
•Power of the PERSON:
–Based on how managers are viewed by others.
- –Expertise—as a source of special knowledge and
–Reference—as a person with whom others like to identify.
- à trusting employees to
- make decisions and to take responsibility for their decisions and actions.
- and empowerment are also important parts of motivation.
Democratic participation fueled by
empowerment is demonstrated by members’ ability to:
Have a say in how things get done.
- Point out problems and improve work
- more engaged and
- committed, which drives them to surpass average
- and processes that encourage employee
- Support programs that enable employees
- to deal directly with
- programs that support collaboration
- and quality and discourage micromanagement.
Empowerment and Theories X, Y and Z
- Theory X-A belief system that holds that the average employee is
- inclined to be lazy, without ambition, and irresponsible.
Theory y- A belief system that holds that workers are inherently ambitious, responsible, and industrious, and that they will work hard to help an organization reach its goals.
- Theory z-A theory stating that organizations have strong, relational
- cultures, that employees have discretionary freedom in local decision
- making and are trusted to work autonomously.
- •One problem with the Theory Z model is that it is nearly
- impossible to imagine a present-day organization that will offer lifetime
- employment. Another questionable aspect of Z organizations is that they could
- be described as benevolent but paternalistic.
•The Z approach can generate positive morale and loyalty.
The Empowerment Movement Today
The Business Imperative for Empowerment
- are much “flatter”
- •organizations are
- much “leaner”.
- •the person closest
- to the work process can often
- make better
- decisions than managers or
- leaders who are farther removed from the process.
- •the nature
- of the employment contract is changing.
- that have few levels of hierarchy, which drives a need for more people to make
- •In the past, the employment equation went something like
- this: “I will come to work and do my best to fulfill the organization’s
- expectations in exchange for respect, reasonable pay, decent working
- conditions, and a promise of lifetime employment.”Today, the equation is more like this: “I will share my
- talents and expertise with this organization only as long as I am fairly
- compensated, have opportunities to learn and grow, can do and be my best, and
- feel that my contributions are valued.”30 If these conditions are not met,
- people can and will leave.
Bartz: I’m Just a Manager
- yourself, so you can be yourself!
- don’t respect phony people.
- yourself with people who fit.
- goals and expectations. Don’t micromanage, empower!
- A set of values and
- principles that guide the behavior of an individual or a group.
- Ideas that a person
- or a group believe to be right or wrong, good or bad, attractive or undesirable
- Personal commitments
- we make to ourselves in relation to our life’s goals.
- values include
- freedom, wisdom, love, equality, and a world at peace. Other examples of
- terminal values include happiness, pleasure, self-respect, inner harmony, and
- family security.
- behaviors or ways of achieving our terminal values.
- ambition, competence, creativity, honesty, integrity, and intellectual ability.
Traits Theories of Leadership
- Physical Characteristics
- Intelligence and Ability
- Social Background
- Work-Related Characteristics
- Social Characteristics
- are enduring and
- distinguishing personal characteristics that may be inherited, learned, or
- •In the early 1900s,
- leadership trait
- theories were prominent.
- of the studies were seriously flawed à research does not
- support the notion that these traits are deterministic.
- theories are models that attempt to explain leadership effectiveness by
- articulation of physical, psychological, and social characteristics, as well as
- abilities, knowledge, and expertise. In many cases, early theorists focused on
- studying people thought to be excellent leaders,
- •Many of these studies in fact focused only on men, and
- in many cases the studies paid an inordinate amount of attention to
- characteristics such as height, “bearing” (e.g., military posture), and
- •Another inaccurate assumption in many of these theories
- was that all traits—physical and psychological alike—were immutable. In fact,
- some of what these researchers considered traits can and do change over time.
Behavior Models and Approaches to Leadership
- •These studies go beyond
- personal characteristics and traits.
- •They focus on actual
- behaviours leaders engaged in
- when guiding and influencing others.
- •Draw on disciplines
- such as sociology,
- psychology, and anthropology .
Ohio State Studies
major dimensions of behaviors associated with
- a.Consideration à people-oriented behaviours such as respect, openness to
- employees’ ideas and concern for employees’ well-being.
- a.Initiating structure à behaviours related to task and goal orientation, such as
- giving clear directions, monitoring employees’ performance , and planning and
- setting work schedules and deadlines.
University of Michigan Studies
•Study identified two
dimensions of behavior:
- a.Production-oriented behavior à focuses
- on efficiency, costs, adhering to
- schedules, and meeting deadlines.
- b.People oriented behavior à supportive of employees, emphasized relationships, and focused
- on engaging employees through setting and assisting in the attainment of
- high-performance goals.
- against two
–Concern for production
–Concern for people.
- into management
- or leadership styles
Contingency Approaches to Leadership
- •Based on the
- following perspectives:
- it comes to leadership and management, one size does not fit all.
- into account leader
- behavior and
- various aspects of the organizational situation and/or characteristics of followers.
- •Approaches in this
–Fiedler’s Contingency Theory
–Leader Substitutes Model.
Fiedler’s Contingency Theory
- effectiveness is dependent on the characteristics of the leader and the
- characteristics of the situation.
- •Changing one’s
- leadership style is difficult à effectiveness =
- match a leader’s style to the situation.
- •Emphasize good
- relationships and being liked by employees.
- •Focus on accomplishments
- and seek to ensure that employees perform well on the job.
Path-Goal Theory of Leadership
- is responsible for motivating employees to attain goals.
- •Effective leaders
- boost employee motivation by illuminating and clearing the path toward organizational
- and personal goals and linking rewards to goal attainment.
- 1. direction
- 3 participative
- 4.achievement oriented
Leader Substitutes Model
- •States that certain
- characteristics of
- people or of the situation can make direct leadership unnecessary.
- example, when employees are knowledgeable, well
- trained, and highly
- motivated, people often don’t
- need close supervision.
- challenges the traditional idea that people have to be managed and
- led, and that if they are not, they will avoid work entirely or not work to
- their full potential.
- People who have social
- and emotional intelligence and
- who can inspire
- others to seek an extraordinary vision.
- People who follow a traditional approach to management in which leader
- and follower behavior is an instrumental
–value people and focus on employees’ needs
- –are passionate about
- what they do
–Do the right thing in the right way
describe five behavioral attributes of charismatic
–Vision and articulation
–Sensitivity to the environment
–Sensitivity to people’s needs
–Personal risk taking
•Transactional Leader 2
- •Directs the efforts
- of others through tasks, rewards, and structures.
- contingent rewards to gain compliance with organizational objectives
- performance, takes corrective action to aid follower performance
- Enthusiasm and Extraordinary Performance
The HR Cycle
- •The role
- of human resources (HR)
- in leadership can be summed up in one word: support.
- takes a variety of forms, some technical, and some more strategic.
Ethical Leadership Development
- •HR has an obligation
- to deliver programs that address issues related to ethical leadership.
- •Programs must be designed
- to clarify the organization's code of ethics and reinforce the importance of professional ethics, as well as to embed
- ethical leadership in all levels of the organization.
- •In order to be
- successful, these
- programs need to be:
- to employee’s experiences
- on developing good judgment
- on reflection and dialogue
- and visibly supported by management
HR’s Leadership Roles
- HR professionals are called upon to lead in their roles as executive
- coach and advisor, strategic business partner, organizational change agent, and
- leadership development architect.
- support employees in doing the right thing, HR has a responsibility to (1) know
- the law; (2) ensure
- that mechanisms are
- in place to support employees in identifying and reporting ethical violations
- or questionable activities (e.g., anonymous hotlines, ombudsperson programs,
- and the like), and (3) protect employees from harm should they need to use these
- To ensure that an
- organization can address ethical behavior strategically, HR must often provide
- mechanisms that both support the culture and encourage individual
- presentation of one’s thoughts, feelings, and beliefs. Authenticity requires a
- high degree of self-awareness.
- leaders are committed to honesty, both with themselves and with those around
- expectation by employees that a leader will act in an ethically justifiable
- manner, will have their best interests at heart and will strive to achieve the
- organization’s goals.
- quality of steadfastly holding to high moral principles and professional
- willingness and ability to face fear, danger, uncertainty, or pain without
- giving up whatever course of action one believes is necessary and right.
- –The result of
- a complex set of
- psychological influences and/or external forces that cause a person to behave in a certain way.
- –Accounts for the level, direction, and
- persistence of effort expended at work.
- –An unfulfilled
- physiological or psychological desire.
- It takes personal effort, great leadership, and
- a positive environment to
- sustain passionate engagement with work.
* self-determination theory
- internal sense of satisfaction derived from the work itself and/or the desire
- to engage in activities even in the absence of external rewards in order to
- feel a sense of satisfaction, to use or improve one’s abilities, or to learn.
- that is the result of forces or attractions outside of the self, such as
- material rewards, social status, or avoidance of unpleasant consequences.
- concerned with people’s need for empowerment (to feel competent
- and have a reasonable degree of autonomy) and their need for relatedness
- (to care
- for and be related to others).
Locus of control
- perception of the degree to which we have control over what happens in our
- Locus of Control- You can impact your environment and your fate.
External Locus of Control-
- and/or the environment have a great impact on you
- and the results of your efforts.
Motivation and the Big Five Dimensions of
- •Openness to experience (versus conformity,
- à Imaginativeness,
- openness to new ideas, and curiosity.
•Conscientiousness (versus undirectedness)
- planning, achievement, and organization.
- •Extraversion (versus
- à The desire to seek
- out others and to have a positive, energetic, social attitude and emotions.
•Agreeableness (versus antagonism)
- à Compassion,
- cooperativeness, and willingness to compromise.
- •Emotional Stability (versus
- à Psychological
- consistency of mood and emotions.
- •These five dimensions were derived from numerous early
- studies, one of which included 18,000 personality characteristics. Researchers
- worked to consolidate the descriptors, resulting in ever-smaller lists.
- Eventually, 16 personality traits were identified, and these were collapsed
- into the Big Five.
- •Studies have examined the effects of these dimensions of
- personality on leadership and motivation. For example, studies suggest that
- extraversion correlates with inspirational leadership and motivation.
retain and motivate talent now
- size does not fit all. You have to know your people and adjust accordingly.
- is not everything, but it sure is important!!!
- should not be managed like role players.
- generations have different needs.
Hierarchy of Needs
- A model stating
- that people are motivated to satisfy physiological, then safety and security,
- then love and belonging, then self-esteem, and finally self-actualization needs
- in that order.
• not well supported by research.
• one must first satisfy the lower order needs.
• once a need is met it ceases to be a motivator.
- People are motivated to satisfy needs related to existence (E), relatedness (R), and growth (G), and these needs can all be activated
- at the same time.- Clayton
- Alderfer developed ERG Theory
The Two-Factor Theory
- Two distinct sets of factors, called motivators &
- hygiene factors, affect job satisfaction, motivation, or job
- à factors that positively
- impact motivation, such as the needs for recognition, responsibility,
- achievement, and opportunities for growth and development.
- Both physical and psychological aspects of a job that can lead to dissatisfaction, including salary,
- working conditions, supervision, relationships with coworkers, and level of job
Need for achievement:
- Defines success as reaching a personal standard of excellence
- Exhibits a relentless desire to succeed
- Measuring Needs for
- Achievement, Affiliation, and Power
- • Personalized
- power à A
- need for power that drives people to seek control through assertive or
- aggressive behavior, often for personal gain.
- • Socialized
- power à An expressed need for
- power that is based on a desire to support the welfare of others, a group,
- society, or the common good.
- To assess what needs were impacting
- people’s thought processes and intentions, McClelland used a tool called the Thematic
- Apperception Test (TAT).
- à A need for power that
- drives people to seek control through assertive or aggressive behavior, often
- for personal gain.
- à An expressed need for
- power that is based on a desire to support the welfare of others, a group,
- society, or the common good.
- behavior that seeks to
- protect the welfare of society or the common good.
- An individual’s level of motivation is a result of comparing personal
- inputs and outcomes, and also of
- comparing one’s
- efforts and rewards with others’ efforts
- and rewards.
- theory is about people’s perceptions of fairness:
- 1.Do my contributions (inputs) and what I receive as a
- result (outcomes) match what others like me are giving and receiving?
- Do I get what I
- believe I deserve
- à A state of psychological stress arising
- from the attempt to process conflicting ideas, attitudes, or beliefs.
- When we experience it , we sometimes
- talk ourselves into believing things that just aren’t true.
- Motivation = Valence x Expectancy x
- à A person’s belief
- about their ability to complete a task successfully.
- à A person’s belief
- about the degree to which performance will result in realizing certain
- •The value placed on
Goal Setting Theory
SMART- Specific, Measureable, Achieveable, Result based, time- specific
- •People are motivated
- by the process of identifying and achieving goals.
- Doing’ and ‘Being’ Goals
- à goal setting
- processes that worked well in industrial organizations do not necessarily allow
- for the stepwise change and transformation that today’s knowledge-based,
- innovative organizations need.
Goals Not Resolutions
- Your environment
- (Culture) is largely responsible for your behavior. So if you aren’t getting
- where you want to go, you may need to change your environment
Operant Conditioning Theory
- Learning and behavior
- change occur
- when behavior is reinforced (rewarded) or when that
- behavior is not reinforced or is punished.
- •Can be highly
- destructive to
- individuals and the organizational environment.
- •Might be necessary to
- stop unlawful, unethical or
- harmful behaviors.
Social Learning Theory
- People learn new
- behaviors by observing others, and that self-reinforcement and self-efficacy support learning and
- behavior change.
- à The degree to which a
- person believes that he or she is capable of successfully performing a
- behavior, accomplishing a task, or achieving a goal.
- degree to which a person believes that he or she is capable of successfully
- performing a behavior, accomplishing a task, or achieving a goal
•One of HR’s core
to ensure that the workforce is energized, committed, and motivated.
•Two important ways
- 1.creating and administering compensation
- plans, and
- 2.considering the characteristics of
of compensation plans:
- 1.Individual compensation à A
- plan in which pay is determined by considering an individual’s performance.
- 2.Group compensation à A
- plan that bases an individual’s compensation on the performance of a group or
- groups, and/or the organization as a whole.
- 3.Merit-based compensation à A
- plan in which compensation is determined by the level of performance of an
- individual or group.
is not the only component of “pay.”
- •Compensation packages à A
- plan in which wages, bonuses, and “fringe” benefits are all monetized.
- •Compensation schedules
- à A plan in which
- payment structures and terms of payment are dispersed to employees.
Motivation, Performance and Rewards
- awards pay increases
- in proportion to performance contributions.
- provides one-time
- payments based on performance accomplishments.
- distributes to
- employees a proportion of net profits earned by the organization.
- allows employees to
- share in cost savings or productivity gains realized by their efforts.
- give the right to
- purchase shares at a fixed price in the future.
The Job Characteristics Model
- •Framework that states
- people need certain qualities in their job to be intrinsically
- motivated and satisfied with their work.
- 1Core job dimensions
- 2. Critical psychological states
- 3. ideal personal and work outcomes
Core job dimenstions
- Skill variety
- task identity
- task significance
Critical psychological states
- experienced meaningfulness of the work
- Experienced responsibilty for the outcomes of the work
- Knowledge of the actual results of the work activities
Ideal persaonl work outcomes
- high internal work motivation
- High-quality work performance
- high satisfaction with the work
- low absenteeism and turnover
- intrinsic motivators, such as opportunities for learning, more control over how
- tasks are accomplished, and leadership opportunities, into the structure of a
- à Combining several
- simple jobs into one larger job.
- à Moving employees from
- one job or one job site to another to increase satisfaction and productivity.
- is the allocation of
- specific work tasks to individuals and groups.
- the extent possible, the work should be designed to challenge employees. But,
- of course, everyone is different.
panning and controling in from above- job design
move tasks in from ealier in workflow- job design
Increase job depth
Move out work that can be don at lower levels- job design
expands job scope
Move tasks in form later in workflow- job design
- employs people in
- clearly defined and very specialized tasks.
- simplification is shown in the traditional structure. Job rotation, enlargement
- and self managing teams are illustrated in the new structure. The teams are
- cross trained so that they can do each other’s task. This keeps the work flowing.
- increases task
- variety by periodically shifting workers between different jobs
- allows individuals to
- perform a broader range of tasks; job rotation allows individuals to shift
- among different jobs of similar skill levels.
1.Self Managing Teams
- Make many decisions
- about how they do their work
Self-Awareness and Motivation
- •You are ultimately
- responsible for motivating yourself.
- •Understanding your
- own feelings about work, effort, and goals, as well as your own needs, desires,
- and hopes, can:
- 1. help you understand your own motivation (or lack
- 2.help you monitor your response to work and adjust your
- stance consciously.
Empathy and Motivation
- •Empathy à Accurately
- interpreting the emotions, needs, and desires of others.
- •Better able to
- connect with people and motivate them to meet their own needs, your needs, and
- the needs of the organization.
- Very important to
- effectively lead in multi-cultural settings.