Management

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Management
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  1. Your role as a leader
    • Respond ethically,
    • positively, and powerfully to the many transformations that are occurring in
    • our world.
  2. How to become a leader?
    –Know your own values as well as your organization’s ethical code.

    • –Make good decisions - often very
    • quickly and without complete information.

    –Know how to think analytically - while also relying on your intuition.

    • –Build strong, trusting relationships with others and communicate well with people at all levels of the
    • organization.

    • –Develop your self-awareness, your capacity for empathy and managing yourself well in
    • stressful situations.

    • Understand and manage your own and
    • others’ emotions (EI).
  3. Why Do Managers Have to Be Leaders?
    • •Become able to inspire
    • people, build powerful and effective teams, deal with conflict and guide, coach
    • and mentor others.




    • •Have a much
    • better chance of harnessing the brain power we need to face the challenges and
    • opportunities in
    • our organizations, our communities and the world.
  4. What is the difference in a manager and a leader?
    A manager is …

    • •an individual
    • who makes plans; organizes and controls people, production, and services; and
    • who regulates or deploys resources.

    • A leader is
    • a person
    • who is out in front, influencing and inspiring people to follow

    --

    • Much
    • of the research on managerial and leadership behaviors reinforces the
    • assumption that only a few individuals (usually those at the top of an
    • organization) are responsible for activities such as strategic planning,
    • crafting and communicating a vision, or inspiring people to pursue
    • organizational goals. The differentiation between management and leadership
    • that has been prevalent for many years is no longer useful.


    • However,
    • it is helpful to look at the early research and perspectives upon which the
    • differentiation was based. Once we understand these assumptions, we can begin
    • to adjust them to fit today’s world.
  5. Managers tend to…
    •Control resources.

    • •Be problem
    • solvers.

    •Seek efficiency.

    • •Be comfortable
    • with order.

    • •Be concerned with
    • how things get done.

    • •Play for time and
    • delay major decisions.

    •Seek compromises.

    • •Identify goals
    • that arise out of necessity.
  6. Leaders tend to…
    • •Create and provide
    • resources through motivation.

    • •Be comfortable
    • with uncertainty.

    • •Function well in
    • chaotic environments.

    • •Be concerned with
    • what events and decisions mean to people.

    • •Seek solutions
    • that do not require compromise.

    • •Take highly
    • personal attitudes toward goals.

    • •Identify goals
    • that arise out of desire.

    • •Inspire strong
    • emotions.
  7. Henry Mintzberg
    • •Model developed by following managers
    • on the job and recording daily activities.





    • Many
    • of these roles and activities are now expected of more people—people who may not
    • formally be called “managers.
    • *

    • •Many businesses and organizations have streamlined
    • operations and decision making.

    • •Whereas it used to be that only managers—and many times,
    • senior managers—did things like disseminate information, foster innovation, or
    • negotiate contracts, nowadays nonmanagerial staff is often empowered to do these things.
  8. The
    Coming Leadership Gap
    • •Many
    • people are promoted to their level of incompetence!

    • •People
    • are often not equipped for leadership.

    • –They
    • are not ready to manage people.

    • –They
    • are not skilled at strategic planning.

    • •There
    • is an opportunity for those who possess these skills.
  9. •Earlier
    leadership studies:
    • •Leadership
    • à personal
    • characteristics and physical, intellectual, and psychological traits.

    • –Leadership à behaviors and styles, and the
    • importance of being able to adapt one’s approach to a particular situation.
  10. Recent leadership studies
    • –Key
    • to Great Leadership à leadership
    • competencies, emotional intelligence, ethics, and the responsible use of power.

    • –Foundation
    • of good leadership à self
    • awareness: the
    • capacity to reflect on, articulate and understand one’s emotions, thought processes, and physical
    • responses to certain situations (like stress).
  11. Barbara Kellerman
    • It is not just leaders who can be
    • judged as effective or ineffective. The same process holds true for followers.

    • –Good followers à actively
    • support good leaders and respond appropriately to bad leaders.
  12. Warren Bennis
    • the
    • characteristics of both leadership and followership are likely to be different
    • from culture to culture.

    *

    • We all need to
    • learn effective followership tools à managing up and effective resistance.
  13. Types of Followers
    •Isolates à nonresponsive or indifferent to their leaders.

    • •Bystanders à not engaged in the
    • life of the organization.

    • •Participants à actively engaged in
    • the organization and make an effort to support and impact the organization.

    • •Activists à feel more strongly
    • about their organizations and leaders than participants and act accordingly.
    • Vocal either when positive or negative.

    • •Diehards à passionate about an idea, a person, or both and will
    • give all for them.
  14. Leadership is learned...

    Three
    secrets to becoming an
    outstanding leader:
    • •Emotional and social competence:
    • The secret to effective leadership.

    •Power:

    The secret to influential leadership.

    •Ethics:

    The secret to responsible leadership.
  15. What Is the Secret to

    Effective Leadership?
    •We must master competencies related to social and emotional intelligence.

    • 1.Competencies
    • 2.Social and emotional intelligence
  16. Competencies
    • Capabilities
    • or abilities that include both intent and action, and that can be directly
    • linked to how well a person performs on a task or in a job.
  17. Social and emotional intelligence
    • Abilities
    • linked to self awareness, self-management, social awareness, and relationship
    • management.
  18. Components of an effecive leader:
    • •Motives
    • à needs
    • or drives that fuel action.

    • •Traits
    • à physical
    • or psychological characteristics that lead to consistent ways of responding to
    • stimuli.

    • •Self-concept
    • à attitudes,
    • values, and self-image—all powerful drivers of actions.

    • •Knowledge
    • à information
    • that a person has at his or her disposal and their overall ability to find it.

    • Skills
    • à learned
    • abilities needed to perform tasks
  19. Threshold
    competencies
    • 1.necessary
    • just to do a job.

    • –Basic expertise,
    • experience, and many cognitive abilities.
  20. Differentiating
    competencies
    • 2.support
    • outstanding performance.

    • –Social and emotional intelligence, pattern recognition and systems
    • thinking.
  21. Technical
    competencies à
    • use of tools
    • and processes related
    • to a specialized field.
  22. Cognitive
    competencies
    • •ability to see the “big
    • picture” in systems such as
    • organizations or groups (pattern recognition) or to analyze complex situations and to understand how all
    • things and people relate to one another (systems thinking).


    • Relational
    • competencies à
  23. Relational
    competencies
    • support the development of strong
    • working relationships with
    • colleagues, direct reports, upper management, and customers.
  24. Technical, Cognitive and Relational
    Competencies
    • Technical
    • skills are especially critical in areas such as engineering, finance, and
    • information technology

    • Two
    • main cognitive competencies—pattern recognition and systems thinking—are
    • crucial in many jobs today

    • Common
    • management applications of relational competencies includes team work,
    • coaching, monitoring performance, and providing feedback
  25. Competency
    model
    • •à A set of competencies
    • that are directly related to success in a job that are grouped into
    • job-relevant categories.

    • –Thousands of competency models are
    • in use in organizations today.

    • –Best
    • ones are well-researched and based on the study of people, jobs, and organizational contexts.
  26. A Comprehensive Management Competency Model
    • When it comes to leadership, one subset of competencies
    • makes all the difference: competencies related to social and emotional intelligence.

    • 1. Goals and actions skills- efficiencey orientation, diagnostic use of concepts, proactivity.
    • 2. Leadership skills- conceptualization, oral presentation, logical thought, self confidence.
    • 3. People management skills- Socialized power, managing group process, prositive regard, accurate self assessment
    • 4. Directing skills- developing other, spontaneilty, use of unilateral power
    • 5. focus on others- concern for close relationships, stamina, objectivity, self control
  27. Resonant
    Organizations
    • Organizations characterized by a powerful and positive culture
    • in which people have a shared sense of excitement and commitment to mutual
    • goals.
  28. Resonant
    Leaders
    • Socially and emotionally intelligent, visionary people who lead
    • and manage in ways that enable everyone to contribute their very vest.
  29. Self-awareness
    • The ability to notice
    • and understand one’s emotions and their effects.
  30. Self-Awareness:

    The Foundation of Social and Emotional Intelligence
    • •Emotions
    • are linked to our ability to think clearly, make good decisions, and focus on
    • tasks.
  31. Limbic
    resonance
    • is a term used to
    • describe how emotions are contagious, and powerful driver of our feelings,
    • thoughts and behaviors.

    • *Our brains are complex structures, and there is an important relationship between neurophysiology (how the brain
    • works), psychology (personality,
    • motives, and traits), and values
    • (deeply held beliefs about how to act on our ideals).
  32. §Leadership = Influence
    • §Leaders often don’t really think about how to
    • influence their people

    §Talking is not influencing

    §Leaders need a THEORY of influence!!!

    • §No silver bullets! Attack from multiple
    • angles.
  33. Power
    influence over and through others; the ability to get people to do what one desires by changing how those people think, feel, or act.
  34. The challenge … of power
    • •Many people are uncomfortable with the idea of
    • wielding power and with the idea that others might use power to influence
    • them.




    •The common view of ‘power’ is that with it come victims.




    • •It is linked closely to culture. Different cultures view, use and
    • distribute power differently.
  35. Organizational politics
    • involve
    • many things, including internal competition and the pursuit of personal goals
    • at the expense of others or the organization. As distasteful as they are to
    • most people, organizational politics are a reality in most organizations. And
    • if you don’t understand them, you can’t help change the situation for the
    • better.




    • Power
    • is a fact of social life in organizations, and managers and leaders need to
    • understand how to use it for the benefit of their employees, the organization,
    • and the people and communities that the organization serves.
  36. Sources of Power
    • •Legitimate
    • Power à The ability to
    • influence others by right of one’s position in an organization, the office held, or formal authority.


    • •Reward
    • Power à The ability to
    • influence others by giving or withholding rewards such as pay, promotions, time off, attractive projects,
    • learning experiences, and the like.


    • •Coercive
    • Power à The attempt to
    • influence others through punishment.


    • •Expert
    • Power à The ability to
    • influence others through a combination of special knowledge and/or skills.


    • •Referent
    • Power à Power that comes from
    • personal
    • characteristics that
    • people value and want to emulate and that cause people to feel respect or
    • admiration.
  37. Managerial Power =
    Position Power + Personal Power




    • •Power
    • of the POSITION:


    –Based on things managers can offer to others.

    • –Rewards: "If you do what I ask, I'll give you a
    • reward."

    • –Coercion: "If you don't do what I ask, I'll punish
    • you."

    • –Legitimacy: "Because I am the boss; you must do as
    • I ask."




    •Power of the PERSON:


    –Based on how managers are viewed by others.

    • –Expertise—as a source of special knowledge and
    • information.

    –Reference—as a person with whom others like to identify.
  38. Empowerment
    • à trusting employees to
    • make decisions and to take responsibility for their decisions and actions.



    • Participation
    • and empowerment are also important parts of motivation.
  39. Democratic participation fueled by
    empowerment is demonstrated by members’ ability to:
    •self-govern

    •voice concerns

    •contribute ideas.
  40. Empowered Employees
    Have a say in how things get done.

    • Point out problems and improve work
    • processes.



    • Are
    • more engaged and
    • committed, which drives them to surpass average
    • performance.
  41. Empowering Organizations
    • Systems
    • and processes that encourage employee
    • involvement.


    • Support programs that enable employees
    • to deal directly with
    • conflicts.



    • Compensation
    • programs that support collaboration
    • and quality and discourage micromanagement.
  42. Empowerment and Theories X, Y and Z
    • Theory X-A belief system that holds that the average employee is
    • inclined to be lazy, without ambition, and irresponsible.

    Theory y- A belief system that holds that workers are inherently ambitious, responsible, and industrious, and that they will work hard to help an organization reach its goals.

    • Theory z-A theory stating that organizations have strong, relational
    • cultures, that employees have discretionary freedom in local decision
    • making and are trusted to work autonomously.



    • •One problem with the Theory Z model is that it is nearly
    • impossible to imagine a present-day organization that will offer lifetime
    • employment. Another questionable aspect of Z organizations is that they could
    • be described as benevolent but paternalistic.

    •The Z approach can generate positive morale and loyalty.
  43. The Empowerment Movement Today
    The Business Imperative for Empowerment



    • •organizations
    • are much “flatter”


    • •organizations are
    • much “leaner”.

    • •the person closest
    • to the work process can often
    • make better
    • decisions than managers or
    • leaders who are farther removed from the process.

    • •the nature
    • of the employment contract is changing.
  44. Flat organizations
    • organizations
    • that have few levels of hierarchy, which drives a need for more people to make
    • decisions.




    • •In the past, the employment equation went something like
    • this: “I will come to work and do my best to fulfill the organization’s
    • expectations in exchange for respect, reasonable pay, decent working
    • conditions, and a promise of lifetime employment.”Today, the equation is more like this: “I will share my
    • talents and expertise with this organization only as long as I am fairly
    • compensated, have opportunities to learn and grow, can do and be my best, and
    • feel that my contributions are valued.”30 If these conditions are not met,
    • people can and will leave.
  45. Carol
    Bartz: I’m Just a Manager
    • •Know
    • yourself, so you can be yourself!

    • –People
    • don’t respect phony people.

    • •Be
    • a listener.

    • •Set
    • the tone.

    • •Surround
    • yourself with people who fit.

    • •Set
    • goals and expectations. Don’t micromanage, empower!
  46. Ethics
    • A set of values and
    • principles that guide the behavior of an individual or a group.
  47. Values
    • Ideas that a person
    • or a group believe to be right or wrong, good or bad, attractive or undesirable
  48. Terminal
    values
    • Personal commitments
    • we make to ourselves in relation to our life’s goals.

    • values include
    • freedom, wisdom, love, equality, and a world at peace. Other examples of
    • terminal values include happiness, pleasure, self-respect, inner harmony, and
    • family security.
  49. Instrumental
    values
    • –Preferred
    • behaviors or ways of achieving our terminal values.



    • include
    • ambition, competence, creativity, honesty, integrity, and intellectual ability.
  50. Traits Theories of Leadership
    • Personality
    • Physical Characteristics
    • Intelligence and Ability
    • Social Background
    • Work-Related Characteristics
    • Social Characteristics


    --

    • •Traits
    • are enduring and
    • distinguishing personal characteristics that may be inherited, learned, or
    • developed.

    • •In the early 1900s,
    • leadership trait
    • theories were prominent.




    Limitations:

    • –Some
    • of the studies were seriously flawed à research does not
    • support the notion that these traits are deterministic.
  51. “Great
    Man Approach
    • Trait
    • theories are models that attempt to explain leadership effectiveness by
    • articulation of physical, psychological, and social characteristics, as well as
    • abilities, knowledge, and expertise. In many cases, early theorists focused on
    • studying people thought to be excellent leaders,

    -

    • •Many of these studies in fact focused only on men, and
    • in many cases the studies paid an inordinate amount of attention to
    • characteristics such as height, “bearing” (e.g., military posture), and
    • neatness

    • •Another inaccurate assumption in many of these theories
    • was that all traits—physical and psychological alike—were immutable. In fact,
    • some of what these researchers considered traits can and do change over time.
  52. Behavior Models and Approaches to Leadership
    • •These studies go beyond
    • personal characteristics and traits.




    • •They focus on actual
    • behaviours leaders engaged in
    • when guiding and influencing others.




    • •Draw on disciplines
    • such as sociology,
    • psychology, and anthropology .

  53. Ohio State Studies




    Found two
    major dimensions of behaviors associated with
    leadership
    • a.Consideration à people-oriented behaviours such as respect, openness to
    • employees’ ideas and concern for employees’ well-being.

    • a.Initiating structure à behaviours related to task and goal orientation, such as
    • giving clear directions, monitoring employees’ performance , and planning and
    • setting work schedules and deadlines.
  54. University of Michigan Studies




    •Researchers studied
    effective supervisors.




    •Study identified two
    dimensions of behavior:
    • a.Production-oriented behavior à focuses
    • on efficiency, costs, adhering to
    • schedules, and meeting deadlines.

    • b.People oriented behavior à supportive of employees, emphasized relationships, and focused
    • on engaging employees through setting and assisting in the attainment of
    • high-performance goals.
  55. Leadership Grid

    Managerial
    behaviours:.
    • 1.plotted
    • against two
    • axes:

    –Concern for production

    –Concern for people.

    • 2.grouped
    • into management
    • or leadership styles
  56. Contingency Approaches to Leadership
    • •Based on the
    • following perspectives:

    • –When
    • it comes to leadership and management, one size does not fit all.

    • –Take
    • into account leader
    • behavior and
    • various aspects of the organizational situation and/or characteristics of followers.




    • •Approaches in this
    • section:

    –Fiedler’s Contingency Theory

    –Path-Goal Theory

    –Leader Substitutes Model.
  57. Fiedler’s Contingency Theory
    • •Leadership
    • effectiveness is dependent on the characteristics of the leader and the
    • characteristics of the situation.
    • •Changing one’s
    • leadership style is difficult à effectiveness =
    • match a leader’s style to the situation.


    -

    • •Relationship-oriented
    • leaders


    • •Emphasize good
    • relationships and being liked by employees.


    • •Task-oriented
    • leaders


    • •Focus on accomplishments
    • and seek to ensure that employees perform well on the job.
  58. Path-Goal Theory of Leadership
    • •Leader
    • is responsible for motivating employees to attain goals.

    • •Effective leaders
    • boost employee motivation by illuminating and clearing the path toward organizational
    • and personal goals and linking rewards to goal attainment.

    • 1. direction
    • 2supportive
    • 3 participative
    • 4.achievement oriented
  59. Leader Substitutes Model
    • •States that certain
    • characteristics of
    • people or of the situation can make direct leadership unnecessary.

    • –For
    • example, when employees are knowledgeable, well
    • trained, and highly
    • motivated, people often don’t
    • need close supervision.




    • It
    • challenges the traditional idea that people have to be managed and
    • led, and that if they are not, they will avoid work entirely or not work to
    • their full potential.
  60. •Transformational
    leaders
    • People who have social
    • and emotional intelligence and
    • who can inspire
    • others to seek an extraordinary vision.


    • People who follow a traditional approach to management in which leader
    • and follower behavior is an instrumental
    • exchange.



    –value people and focus on employees’ needs

    • –are passionate about
    • what they do

    –Do the right thing in the right way
  61. •Researchers
    describe five behavioral attributes of charismatic
    leaders:
    –Vision and articulation

    –Sensitivity to the environment

    –Sensitivity to people’s needs

    –Personal risk taking

    –Unconventional behavior.
  62. •Transactional Leader 2
    • •Directs the efforts
    • of others through tasks, rewards, and structures.

    • –Uses
    • contingent rewards to gain compliance with organizational objectives

    • –Monitors
    • performance, takes corrective action to aid follower performance

    • •Transformational
    • Leader

    • –Inspires
    • Enthusiasm and Extraordinary Performance
  63. The HR Cycle
    • •The role
    • of human resources (HR)
    • in leadership can be summed up in one word: support.

    • –support
    • takes a variety of forms, some technical, and some more strategic.
  64. Ethical Leadership Development
    • •HR has an obligation
    • to deliver programs that address issues related to ethical leadership.




    • •Programs must be designed
    • to clarify the organization's code of ethics and reinforce the importance of professional ethics, as well as to embed
    • ethical leadership in all levels of the organization.




    • •In order to be
    • successful, these
    • programs need to be:

    • –Relevant
    • to employee’s experiences

    • –Focused
    • on developing good judgment

    • –Focused
    • on reflection and dialogue

    • –Fully
    • and visibly supported by management

  65. HR’s Leadership Roles
    • •Today,
    • HR professionals are called upon to lead in their roles as executive
    • coach and advisor, strategic business partner, organizational change agent, and
    • leadership development architect.



    • To
    • support employees in doing the right thing, HR has a responsibility to (1) know
    • the law; (2) ensure

    • that mechanisms are
    • in place to support employees in identifying and reporting ethical violations
    • or questionable activities (e.g., anonymous hotlines, ombudsperson programs,
    • and the like), and (3) protect employees from harm should they need to use these
    • programs.
  66. •Whistle-Blower Protection
    • To ensure that an
    • organization can address ethical behavior strategically, HR must often provide
    • mechanisms that both support the culture and encourage individual
  67. Authenticity
    • •Genuine
    • presentation of one’s thoughts, feelings, and beliefs. Authenticity requires a
    • high degree of self-awareness.

    • •Authentic
    • leaders are committed to honesty, both with themselves and with those around
    • them.
  68. Trust
    • •The
    • expectation by employees that a leader will act in an ethically justifiable
    • manner, will have their best interests at heart and will strive to achieve the
    • organization’s goals.
  69. Integrity
    • •The
    • quality of steadfastly holding to high moral principles and professional
    • standards.
  70. Courage
    • •The
    • willingness and ability to face fear, danger, uncertainty, or pain without
    • giving up whatever course of action one believes is necessary and right.


  71. •Motivation à
    • –The result of
    • a complex set of
    • psychological influences and/or external forces that cause a person to behave in a certain way.

    • –Accounts for the level, direction, and
    • persistence of effort expended at work.

    •Need


    • –An unfulfilled
    • physiological or psychological desire.



    • It takes personal effort, great leadership, and
    • a positive environment to
    • sustain passionate engagement with work.
  72. •Intrinsic
    Motivation
  73. * self-determination theory
    • An
    • internal sense of satisfaction derived from the work itself and/or the desire
    • to engage in activities even in the absence of external rewards in order to
    • feel a sense of satisfaction, to use or improve one’s abilities, or to learn.
  74. •Extrinsic Motivation
    • Motivation
    • that is the result of forces or attractions outside of the self, such as
    • material rewards, social status, or avoidance of unpleasant consequences.
  75. Self
    Determination Theory
    • is
    • concerned with people’s need for empowerment (to feel competent
    • and have a reasonable degree of autonomy) and their need for relatedness
    • (to care
    • for and be related to others).
  76. Locus of control
    • Our
    • perception of the degree to which we have control over what happens in our
    • lives.



    • Internal
    • Locus of Control- You can impact your environment and your fate.




    External Locus of Control-

    • Others
    • and/or the environment have a great impact on you
    • and the results of your efforts.
  77. Motivation and the Big Five Dimensions of
    Personality
    • •Openness to experience (versus conformity,
    • closed-mindedness)

    • à Imaginativeness,
    • openness to new ideas, and curiosity.

    •Conscientiousness (versus undirectedness)

    • àSelf-discipline,
    • planning, achievement, and organization.

    • •Extraversion (versus
    • introversion)

    • à The desire to seek
    • out others and to have a positive, energetic, social attitude and emotions.

    •Agreeableness (versus antagonism)

    • à Compassion,
    • cooperativeness, and willingness to compromise.

    • •Emotional Stability (versus
    • Neuroticism)

    • à Psychological
    • consistency of mood and emotions.

    ___

    • •These five dimensions were derived from numerous early
    • studies, one of which included 18,000 personality characteristics. Researchers
    • worked to consolidate the descriptors, resulting in ever-smaller lists.
    • Eventually, 16 personality traits were identified, and these were collapsed
    • into the Big Five.

    • •Studies have examined the effects of these dimensions of
    • personality on leadership and motivation. For example, studies suggest that
    • extraversion correlates with inspirational leadership and motivation.
  78. How to
    retain and motivate talent now
    • •One
    • size does not fit all. You have to know your people and adjust accordingly.

    • •Money
    • is not everything, but it sure is important!!!

    • •Superstars
    • should not be managed like role players.

    • •Different
    • generations have different needs.
  79. Hierarchy of Needs
    • A model stating
    • that people are motivated to satisfy physiological, then safety and security,
    • then love and belonging, then self-esteem, and finally self-actualization needs
    • in that order.



    Criticism:

    • not well supported by research.

    • one must first satisfy the lower order needs.

    • once a need is met it ceases to be a motivator.
  80. ERG Theory
    • People are motivated to satisfy needs related to existence (E), relatedness (R), and growth (G), and these needs can all be activated
    • at the same time.- Clayton
    • Alderfer developed ERG Theory
  81. The Two-Factor Theory
    • Two distinct sets of factors, called motivators &
    • hygiene factors, affect job satisfaction, motivation, or job
    • dissatisfaction.
  82. Motivators
    • à factors that positively
    • impact motivation, such as the needs for recognition, responsibility,
    • achievement, and opportunities for growth and development.
  83. Hygiene
    factors à
    • Both physical and psychological aspects of a job that can lead to dissatisfaction, including salary,
    • working conditions, supervision, relationships with coworkers, and level of job
    • security.
  84. Need for achievement:
    • Defines success as reaching a personal standard of excellence

    • Exhibits a relentless desire to succeed

    • Enjoys regular feedback
  85. Three-Needs Theory
    • Measuring Needs for
    • Achievement, Affiliation, and Power



    • • Personalized
    • power à A
    • need for power that drives people to seek control through assertive or
    • aggressive behavior, often for personal gain.

    VS.


    • • Socialized
    • power à An expressed need for
    • power that is based on a desire to support the welfare of others, a group,
    • society, or the common good.








    • To assess what needs were impacting
    • people’s thought processes and intentions, McClelland used a tool called the Thematic
    • Apperception Test (TAT).
  86. Personalized power
    • à A need for power that
    • drives people to seek control through assertive or aggressive behavior, often
    • for personal gain.
  87. Socialized powe
    • à An expressed need for
    • power that is based on a desire to support the welfare of others, a group,
    • society, or the common good.
  88. prosocial behavior
    • any
    • behavior that seeks to
    • protect the welfare of society or the common good.
  89. Equity Theory
    • Cognitive
    • dissonance





    • An individual’s level of motivation is a result of comparing personal
    • inputs and outcomes, and also of
    • comparing one’s
    • efforts and rewards with others’ efforts
    • and rewards.





    • This
    • theory is about people’s perceptions of fairness:




    • 1.Do my contributions (inputs) and what I receive as a
    • result (outcomes) match what others like me are giving and receiving?

    ‚óŹ


    • Do I get what I
    • believe I deserve
  90. Cognitivedissonance
    • à A state of psychological stress arising
    • from the attempt to process conflicting ideas, attitudes, or beliefs.

    • When we experience it , we sometimes
    • talk ourselves into believing things that just aren’t true.
  91. Expectancy Theory
    • Motivation = Valence x Expectancy x
    • Instrumentality
  92. Expectancy
    • à A person’s belief
    • about their ability to complete a task successfully.
  93. Instrumentality
    • à A person’s belief
    • about the degree to which performance will result in realizing certain
    • outcomes.
  94. Valence
    • •The value placed on
    • outcomes.
  95. Goal Setting Theory
    SMART- Specific, Measureable, Achieveable, Result based, time- specific



    • •People are motivated
    • by the process of identifying and achieving goals.




    • •‘
    • Doing’ and ‘Being’ Goals
    • à goal setting
    • processes that worked well in industrial organizations do not necessarily allow
    • for the stepwise change and transformation that today’s knowledge-based,
    • innovative organizations need.
  96. Make
    Goals Not Resolutions
    • •Vague
    • doesn’t work.

    • Your environment
    • (Culture) is largely responsible for your behavior. So if you aren’t getting
    • where you want to go, you may need to change your environment
  97. Operant Conditioning Theory
    • Learning and behavior
    • change occur
    • when behavior is reinforced (rewarded) or when that
    • behavior is not reinforced or is punished.



    Punishment




    • •Can be highly
    • destructive to
    • individuals and the organizational environment.

    • •Might be necessary to
    • stop unlawful, unethical or
    • harmful behaviors.
  98. Social Learning Theory
    • People learn new
    • behaviors by observing others, and that self-reinforcement and self-efficacy support learning and
    • behavior change.




    • •Self-efficacy
    • à The degree to which a
    • person believes that he or she is capable of successfully performing a
    • behavior, accomplishing a task, or achieving a goal.
  99. Self-efficacy
    • The
    • degree to which a person believes that he or she is capable of successfully
    • performing a behavior, accomplishing a task, or achieving a goal
  100. •One of HR’s core
    responsibilities is
    to ensure that the workforce is energized, committed, and motivated.




    •Two important ways
    to
    achieve this:
    • 1.creating and administering compensation
    • plans, and

    • 2.considering the characteristics of
    • jobs.
  101. Type
    of compensation plans:
    • 1.Individual compensation à A
    • plan in which pay is determined by considering an individual’s performance.

    • 2.Group compensation à A
    • plan that bases an individual’s compensation on the performance of a group or
    • groups, and/or the organization as a whole.

    • 3.Merit-based compensation à A
    • plan in which compensation is determined by the level of performance of an
    • individual or group.
  102. Money
    is not the only component of “pay.”
    • •Compensation packages à A
    • plan in which wages, bonuses, and “fringe” benefits are all monetized.







    • •Compensation schedules
    • à A plan in which
    • payment structures and terms of payment are dispersed to employees.
  103. Motivation, Performance and Rewards
    1.Merit Pay

    • awards pay increases
    • in proportion to performance contributions.

    2.Bonus Pay

    • provides one-time
    • payments based on performance accomplishments.

    3.Profit Sharing

    • distributes to
    • employees a proportion of net profits earned by the organization.

    4.Gain Sharing

    • allows employees to
    • share in cost savings or productivity gains realized by their efforts.

    5.Stock Options

    • give the right to
    • purchase shares at a fixed price in the future.
  104. The Job Characteristics Model
    • •Framework that states
    • people need certain qualities in their job to be intrinsically
    • motivated and satisfied with their work.

    • 1Core job dimensions
    • 2. Critical psychological states
    • 3. ideal personal and work outcomes
  105. Core job dimenstions
    • Skill variety
    • task identity
    • task significance
    • autonomy
    • feedback
  106. Critical psychological states
    • experienced meaningfulness of the work
    • Experienced responsibilty for the outcomes of the work
    • Knowledge of the actual results of the work activities
  107. Ideal persaonl work outcomes
    • high internal work motivation
    • High-quality work performance
    • high satisfaction with the work
    • low absenteeism and turnover
  108. Job enrichment
    • Building
    • intrinsic motivators, such as opportunities for learning, more control over how
    • tasks are accomplished, and leadership opportunities, into the structure of a
    • job.
  109. Job enlargement
    • à Combining several
    • simple jobs into one larger job.
  110. Job rotation
    • à Moving employees from
    • one job or one job site to another to increase satisfaction and productivity.
  111. 1.Job Design
    • is the allocation of
    • specific work tasks to individuals and groups.



    • To
    • the extent possible, the work should be designed to challenge employees. But,
    • of course, everyone is different.
  112. Vertical loading
    panning and controling in from above- job design
  113. Horizantal loading-
    move tasks in from ealier in workflow- job design
  114. Increase job depth
    Move out work that can be don at lower levels- job design
  115. expands job scope
    Move tasks in form later in workflow- job design
  116. 1.Job Simplification
    • employs people in
    • clearly defined and very specialized tasks.



    • Job
    • simplification is shown in the traditional structure. Job rotation, enlargement
    • and self managing teams are illustrated in the new structure. The teams are
    • cross trained so that they can do each other’s task. This keeps the work flowing.
  117. 1.Job Rotation
    • increases task
    • variety by periodically shifting workers between different jobs
  118. 1.Job Enlargement
    • allows individuals to
    • perform a broader range of tasks; job rotation allows individuals to shift
    • among different jobs of similar skill levels.
  119. 1.Self Managing Teams
    • Make many decisions
    • about how they do their work
  120. Self-Awareness and Motivation
    • •You are ultimately
    • responsible for motivating yourself.

    • •Understanding your
    • own feelings about work, effort, and goals, as well as your own needs, desires,
    • and hopes, can:

    • 1. help you understand your own motivation (or lack
    • thereof).

    • 2.help you monitor your response to work and adjust your
    • stance consciously.
  121. Empathy and Motivation
    • •Empathy à Accurately
    • interpreting the emotions, needs, and desires of others.

    • •Better able to
    • connect with people and motivate them to meet their own needs, your needs, and
    • the needs of the organization.

    • Very important to
    • effectively lead in multi-cultural settings.

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