Bio Unit 2 test

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Bio Unit 2 test
2010-09-22 22:15:27

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  1. 3 major parts of the skin
    • Epidermis
    • Dermis
    • Hypodermis
  2. what is the epidermis
    superficial region; outer most region
  3. what is the dermis
    middle region of the skin
  4. what is the hypodermis
    • - deepest region
    • - subcutaneous layer deep to skin (not technically part of skin)
    • - made up of mostly adipose tissue
  5. what kind of tissue is in the skin
    Keratinized stratified squamous epithelium
  6. what types of cells are in the epidermis
    • - keratinocytes
    • - melanocytes
    • - epidermal dendritic (langerhans) cells
    • - tactile (merkell) cells
  7. what are the layers of the epidermis in order from deep to superficial
    • - Stratum Basale (basal layer)
    • - stratum Spinosum (prickly layer)
    • - stratum Granulosum (granular layer)
    • - stratum corneum (horny layer)
  8. what layer of the skin is only in thick skin
    Stratum Lucidum
  9. what is the stratum basale (basal layer)
    • - deepest epidermal layer firmly attached to the dermis
    • - has a single row of stem cells
  10. what is the stratum spinosm (prickly layer)
    - made up of cells that contain a weblike system of intermediate prekeratin filaments attached to desmosomes

    - and abundant melanin granules and dendritic cells
  11. what is the stratum granulosum (granule layer)
    - thin; 3 to 5 cell layers in which the cells flatten

    - where keratohyaline and lamellated granules accumulate
  12. what is the stratum lucidum (clear layer)
    - located only in thick skin

    - thin transparent band superficial to the stratum granulosum

    - has a few rows of flat, dead keratinocytes
  13. what is the dermis made up of?
    - strong, flexible connective tissue
  14. what kind of cells are located in the dermis
    • - fibroblasts
    • - macrophages
    • - occasionally mast cells and white blood cells
  15. the dermis is made up of what 2 layers
    • papillary
    • reticular
  16. what is the papillary layer of the dermis made up of?
    - areolar connective tissue with collagen and elastic fibers and blood vessels

    - dermal papillae
  17. what does dermal papillae contain
    • - capillary loops
    • - meissners corpuscles
    • - free nerve endings
  18. what is the reticular layer of the dermis
    • - 80% of the thickness of dermis
    • - collagen fibers provide strength and resiliency
    • - elastic fibers provide stretch-recoil properties
  19. what 3 pigments contribute to skin color
    • - melanin
    • - carotene
    • - hemoglobin
  20. what is melanin?
    yellow to reddish- brown to black, responsible for dark skin colors
  21. what is carotene
    yellow to orange, most obivious in the palms and soles
  22. what is hemoglobin
    responsible for the pinkish hue of skin
  23. what are the derivatives of the epidermis
    • - sweat glands
    • - oil glands
    • - hair and hair follicles
    • - nails
  24. wha are the two main types of sweat (sudoriferous) glands
    • - Eccrine
    • - apocrine
  25. what are the functions of the skin
    • - protects from abrasion and penetration
    • - waterproof
    • - barrier against biological, chemical, and physical assaults
  26. where are eccrine (merocrine) sweat glands found
    palms, soles, and forehead
  27. what is sweat made up of
    • 99% water
    • NaCI
    • Vitamin C
    • Antibodies
    • Metabolic Wastes
  28. where are apocrine sweat glands found
    - confined to axillary and anogenital areas
  29. what do apocrine glands release
  30. what is sebum
    sweat + fatty substances and proteins
  31. what type of sweat gland is only functional after puberty
  32. what are some specialized apocrine glands
    • - ceruminous glands- in external ear canal
    • - mammary glands
  33. what are sebaceous (oil) glands
    • - widely disribted
    • - most develop from hair follicles
    • - becomes active at puberty
    • - releases sebum
  34. what is responsible for softening hair and skin
  35. what are the functions of hair
    • -Alerting the body to the presence of insects on the skin
    • - guarding the scalp against physical trauma, heat loss, and sunlight
  36. hair is located everywhere on the body EXCEPT
    • palms
    • lips
    • nipples
    • and portions of external genitalia
  37. what does hair consist of?
    • - dead keratinized cells
    • - contains hard keratin
    • - hair pigments: melanins
  38. what creates gray/white hair
    decreased melanin production, increased air bubbles in shaft
  39. Hair extends from the ________ surface into __________
    • Epidermal
    • dermis
  40. hair has a two-layered wall what do they consist of
    • outer connective tissue root sheath
    • inner epithelial root sheath
  41. what is the hair bulb
    the expanded deep end of hair follicle
  42. there are ________ _______ _________ around each hair bulb
    sensory nerve endings
  43. by bending a hair you stimulate the what?
    sensory nerve endings
  44. what is the arrector pili
    • smooth muscle attached to follicle
    • responsible for goose bumps
  45. what are the 2 types of hair
    • vellus
    • terminal
  46. what is vellus hair
    • type of hair
    • pale, fine body hair of children and adult females
  47. what is terminal hair
    coarse, long hair of eyebrows, scalp, axillary, and pubic regions (and face and neck of males)
  48. what is alopecia
    hair thinning in both sexes after 40
  49. what is true baldness
    • -genetically determined and sex-influenced condition
    • -male pattern baldness is caused by follicular response to DHT
  50. what are the functions of the integumentary system
    • - protection
    • - body temp regulation
    • - cutaneous sensations
    • - metabolic waste
  51. what are 3 types of protective barriers of the integumentary system
    • chemical
    • physical/mechanical barriers
    • biological barriers
  52. glands release sweat through what process
  53. if a cell has the suffix "blast", that means...
    the cell is constantly dividing
  54. if a cell has the suffix "cyte", that means what?
    doesnt divide
  55. what is blood resevoir
    up to 5% of bodys blood volume
  56. what is excretion
    nitrogenous wastes and salt in sweat
  57. what are risk factors to skin cancer
    • - overexposure to UV radiation
    • - frequent irritation of the skin
  58. what are 3 major types of skin cancer
    • - basal cell carcinoma
    • - squamous cell carcinoma
    • - melonoma
  59. what is basal cell carcinoma
    • - stratum basale cells proliferate and slowly invade dermis and hypodermis
    • - cured by surgical excision in 99% of cases
  60. what is squamous cell carcinoma
    • - involves keratinocytes of stratum spinosum
    • - most common on scalp, ears, lower lip, and hands
    • - good prognosis if treated by radiation therapy or removed surgically
  61. what is melanoma
    • - highly metastatic and resistant to chemotherapy
    • - treated by wide surgical excision accompanied by immunotherapy
  62. what are some characteristics of melanoma
    A- Asymmetry; the two sides of the pigmented area do not match

    B- Boder exhibits indentations

    C- color is black, brown, tan and sometimes red or blue

    D- diameter is larger than 6 mm (size of a pencil eraser)
  63. what are the types of burns
    • Heat
    • electrical
    • radiation
    • chemical
  64. what do burns cause
    • tissue damage
    • denatured protein
    • cell death
  65. what is the immediate threat of burns
    dehydration and electrolyte imbalance, leading to renal shutdown and circulatory shock
  66. what is the rule of nines
    used to estimate the volume of fluid loss from burns
  67. what is a first degree burn
    • epidermal damage only
    • - localized redness, edema, and pain
  68. what is a second degree burn
    • epidermal and upper dermal damage
    • - blisters appear
  69. what is a third degree burn
    • entire thickness of skin is damaged
    • - gray/white, cherry red, or black
    • - no initial edema or pain (nerve endings destroyed)
    • - skin grafting usually necessary
  70. burns are considered critical when?
    • 25% of the body has second-degree burns
    • 10% of the body has third-degree burns
    • face, hands or feet bear third-degree burns
  71. what is the lanugo coat
    the covering of delicate hairs in fetal developement
  72. the ectoderm gives rise to the...
  73. the mesoderm gives rise to the....
    dermis and hypodermis
  74. what is the vernix caseosa
    sebaceous gland secretion; protects skin of fetus
  75. what are the transitions of skin from adolescent to adult hood
    • - sebaceous gland activiy increases
    • - effects of cumulative environmental assaults show after age 30
    • - scaling and dermatitis become more common
  76. what are the transitions of skin from adult to old age
    • - epidermal replacement slows, skin becomes thin, dry and itchy
    • - subcutaneous fat and elasticity decrease, leading to cold intolerance and wrinkles
    • - increased risk of cancer
  77. what are tissues
    groups of cells similar in structure and function
  78. what are the types of tissues
    • Epithelial tissue
    • connective tissue
    • muscle tissue
    • nerve tissue
  79. nervous tissue is responsible for what and located where
    internal communication

    brain, spinal cord, and nerves
  80. muscle tissue does what and is located where
    Contracts to cause movement

    attached to bones, heart, walls of hollow organs; skeletal, cardiac, smooth
  81. what does epithelial tissue do and where is it found
    forms boundaries between different environments, protects, secretes, absorbs filters

    • skin surface
    • lining of GI tract organs
    • other hollow organs
  82. what does connective tissue do and where is it found
    supports, protects, binds other tissues together

    • bones
    • tendons
    • fat and other soft padding tissue
  83. what are the 2 types of epithelial tissue
    • covering and lining epithelia
    • glandular epithelia
  84. cells have two types of surfaces
    • apical
    • basal
  85. apical surface
    • - upper free
    • - may bear microvilli or cilia
  86. basal surface
    noncellular basal lamina of glycoprotein and collagen lies adjacent to basal surface
  87. characteristics of epithelial tissue are
    • - composed of closely packed cells
    • - supported by a connective tissue reticular lamina
    • - avascular but innervated
    • - high rate of regeneration
  88. when classifying epithelia ask what 2 questions
    • 1. how many layers?
    • 1= simple
    • >1= stratified

    • 2. what type of cell?
    • - squamous
    • - cuboidal
    • - columnar
  89. Simple squamous Epithelium:

    single layer of flattened cells with disc-shaped central nuclei and sparse cytoplasm; the simplest of the epithelia
  90. Simple squamous Epithelium:

    Allows passage of materials by diffusion and filtration in sites where protection is not important; secretes lubricating substances in serosae
  91. Simple squamous Epithelium:

    • Kidney glomeruli;
    • air sacs of lungs;
    • linings of heart,
    • blood vessels,
    • and lymphatic vessels;
    • lining of ventral body cavity
  92. Simple Cuboidal Epithelium:

    Single layer of cubelike cells with large, spherical central nuclei
  93. Simple Cuboidal Epithelium:

    secretion and absorption
  94. Simple Cuboidal Epithelium:

    kidney tubules; ducts and secretary portions of small glands; ovary surface
  95. Simple Columnar Epithelium:

    single layer of tall cells with round to oval nuclei; some cells bear cilia; layer may contain muscus-secreting unicellular glands
  96. Simple columnar Epithelium:

    Absorption; secretion of mucus, enzymes, and other substances; ciliated type propels mucus (or reproductive cells) by ciliary action
  97. Simple columnar Epithelium:

    • Nonciliated type lines
    • most of the digestive tract (stomach to anal canal)
    • gallbladder
    • and excretory ducts of some glands ciliated variety lines small bronchi uterine tubes
    • and some regions of the uterus
  98. Pseudostratified columnar Epithelium:

    single layer of cells of differing heights, some not reaching the free surface; nuclei seen at different levels; may contain mucus-secreting cells and bear cilia
  99. Pseudostratified columnar Epithelium:

    Secretion, particularly of mucus; propulsion of mucus by ciliary action
  100. Pseudostratified columnar Epithelium:

    Nonciliated type in males sperm-carrying ducts and ducts of large glands; ciliated variety lines the trachea, most of the upper respiratory tract
  101. Stratified Squamous Epithelium:

    thick membrane composed of several cell layers; basal cells are cuboidal or columnar and metabolically active; surface cells are flattened (squamous); in the keratinized type, the surface cells are full of keratin and dead; basal cells are active in mitosis and produce the cells of the more superficial layers
  102. Stratified Squamous Epithelium:

    Protects underlying tissues in areas subjected to abrasion
  103. Stratified Squamous Epithelium:

    • nonkeratinized type forms the moist linings of the esophagus,
    • mouth,
    • and vagina;
    • keratinized variety forms the epidermis of the skin,
    • a dry membrane
  104. Transitional Epithelium

    resembles both stratified squamous and stratified squamous and stratified cuboidal; basal cells cuboidal or columnar; surface cells dome shaped or squamouslike, depending on degree of organ stretch
  105. Transitional Epithelium:

    stretches readily and permits distension of urinary organ by contained urine
  106. Transitional Epithelium:

    Lines the ureters, urinary bladder, and part of the urethra
  107. what is a Glandular epithelia
    a gland that is one or more cells that makes and secretes an aqueous fluid
  108. glandular epithelia is flassified by
    • - site of product release- endocrine or exocrine
    • - relative number of cells forming the gland- unicellular or multicellular
  109. endocrine glands are..
    • - ductless glands
    • - secrete hormones that travel through lymph or blood to target organs
  110. exocrine glands are...
    • - more numerous than endocrine glands
    • - secrete products into ducts
    • - secretions released onto body surfaces(skin) or into body cavities
    • - examples include mucous, sweat, oil and salivary glands
  111. the only important exocrine gland is the...
    goblet cell
  112. multicellular exocrine glands are composed of what?
    • - duct
    • - secretory unit
  113. multicellular exocrine glands are classified according to:
    • - duct type (simple or compound)
    • - structure of their secretory units (tubular, alveolar, or tubuloalveolar)
  114. what are the modes of secretion
    • merocrine
    • holocrine
  115. what is the merocrine mode of secretion

    gland examples
    - products are secreted by exocytosis

    - pancreas, sweat and salivary glands
  116. what is the holocrine mode of secretion

    ex. sebaceous glands
    products are secreted by rupture of gland cells
  117. what is the most abundant and widely distributed tissue type
    connective tissue
  118. what are the four classes connective tissue
    • Connective tissue proper
    • cartilage
    • bone
    • bone tissue
    • blood
  119. what are the major functions of connective tissue
    • - binding and support
    • - protection
    • - insulation
    • - transportation (blood)
  120. what are the characteristics of connective tissue i.e. what do they have?
    • - mesenchyme as their common tissue of origin
    • - varying degrees of vascularity
    • - cells seperated by nonliving extracellular matix
  121. what are the structural elements of connective tissue
    • - ground substance
    • - three types of fibers
    • - cells
  122. in connective tisue, what does the ground substance do and what is it made up of?
    - a medium in which solutes diffuse between blood capillaries and cells

    • - made up of 3 components:
    • 1. interstitial fluid
    • 2. adhesion proteins
    • 3. proteoglycans
  123. what are proteoglycans
    a protein core + large polysaccharides that trap water of the ground substance
  124. what are the 3 types of fibers in connective tissue
    • - collagen
    • - elastic
    • - reticular
  125. what is collagen fiber
    • - (white fibers)
    • - strongest and most abundant type
    • - provides high tensile strength
  126. what is elastic fiber
    networks of long, thin, elastin fibers that allow for stretch
  127. what is reticular fibers
    short, fine, highly branched collagenous fibers
  128. what kind of cells are found in connective tissue proper?
  129. what kind of cells are found in cartilage
    • chondroblasts
    • chondrocytes
  130. what kind of cells are found in bone
    • osteoblasts
    • osteocytes
  131. what kind of cells are found in bone marrow
    hematopoietic stem cells
  132. what are the 2 types of connective tissue
    • loose connective
    • dense connective
  133. what type of cells uncontrollably divide in melanoma
  134. what are the 3 types of cartilage
    • hyaline
    • elastic
    • fibrocartilage
  135. what are the types of epithelial membranes
    • cutaneous membranes
    • mucous membranes
    • serous membranes
  136. what are the steps in tissue repair
    • 1. inflammation
    • 2.organization and restored blood supply
    • 3. regeneration and fibrosis
  137. what are the primary germ layers of skin
    • ectoderm
    • mesoderm
    • endoderm
  138. what tissues come from the ectoderm germ layer
    nerve tissue
  139. what tissues come from the mesoderm germ layer
    muscle and connective tissue
  140. what germ layer does the epithelial tissues arise from
    all three germ layers
  141. in "RULE OF NINES" what is the percentage of fluid loss on the anterior and posterior head and neck?
  142. in "RULE OF NINES" what is the percentage of fluid loss on the anterior and posterior upper limbs 18%
  143. in "RULE OF NINES" what is the percentage of blood loss on the anterior and posterior trunk
  144. in "RULE OF NINES" what is the percentage of fluid loss on the perineum area
  145. in "RULE OF NINES" what is the percentage of fluid loss on anterior and posterior lower limbs
  146. what are the subclasses of bone tissue
    • compact bone
    • spongy bone
  147. what are the classes of loos connective tissue
    • areolar
    • adipose
    • reticular
  148. what are the classes for dense connective tissue
    • regular
    • irregular
    • elastic
  149. what is chromatin?
    • threadlike strands of DNA
    • 30% histone
    • 60% proteins
    • 10% RNA

    • -arranged in fundemental units called nucleosomes
    • -condense into barlike bodies called chromosomes when the cell starts to divide
  150. what is the cell cycle?
    - defines changes from formation of the cell until it reproduces

    • includes
    • interphase
    • mitosis
  151. what is interphase
    Resting period for cells

    - period from cell formation to cell division
  152. what are the 4 subphases of interphase
    • G1 (gap 1)
    • G0 (gap)
    • S(synthetic)
    • G2 (gap 2)
  153. what is G1
    a subphase of interphase

    • metabolically active
    • grows vigerously

    the centrioles begin replicating
  154. what is G0-
    subphase of interphase

    gap phase in cells that permanently cease dividing
  155. what is S phase
    subphase of interphase

    DNA is replicating

    makes sure that the future cells are identically copied
  156. what is G2
    subphase of interphase

    final preparations for mitosis are completed and centrioles finish replicating
  157. what is DNA Replication?
    • -DNA helices begin unwinding from the nucleosomes
    • -helicase untwists the double helix and exposes complementary chains
    • -the y-shaped site of replication is the replication fork
    • -each nucleotide strand serves as a template for building a new complementary strand
  158. what happens during DNA Polymerase
    • - continuous leading strand is synthesized
    • - discontinuous lagging strand is synthesized in segments
    • - DNA ligase splices together short segments of discontinuous strand
  159. what is the end result of DNA polymerase
    two DNA molecules formed from the original

    this process is called semiconservative replication
  160. what is mitosis essential for?
    body growth and tissue repair
  161. mitosis does not occur in...
    • mature cells of nervous tissue
    • skeletal muscle
    • cardiac muscle
  162. what 2 major events occur in cell division?
    • Mitosis
    • Cytokinesis
  163. what are the stages of mitosis
    • prophase
    • metaphase
    • anaphase
    • telophase
  164. what is mitosis
    nuclear division of cells
  165. what is cytokinesis
    division of cytoplasm by cleavage furrow
  166. what happens during prophase
    • - chromosomes become visible, each with two chromatids joined at a centromere
    • - centrosomes separate and migrate toward opposite poles
    • - mitotic spindles and asters form
  167. what happens during metaphase
    • -centromeres of chromosomes are aligned at the equator
    • - this plane midway between the poles is called the metaphse plate
  168. what happens during anaphase
    • - shortest phase
    • - centromeres of chromosomes split simultaneously
    • - chromosomes (v shaped) are pulled toward poles by motor proteins of kinetochores
    • - polar microtubules continue forcing the poles apart
  169. what is telophase
    • - begins when chromosome movement stops
    • - the two sets of chromosomes uncoil to form chromatin
    • - new nuclear membrane forms around each chromatin mass
    • - Nucleoli reappear
    • - spindle disappears
  170. what happens during cytokinesis
    • - begins during late anaphase
    • - ring of actin microfilaments contracts to form a cleavage furrow
    • - two daughter cells are pinched aprart, each containing a nucleus identical to the original
  171. what are "go signals"
    gives the cells signals to start the division process when area of membrane is inadequate for exchange
  172. what are "stop signals"
    tells the cell when to stop dividing
  173. what is protein synthesis
  174. what is the role of mRNA
    carries instructions for building a polypeptide, from gene in DNA to ribosomes in cytoplasm
  175. what is the role of rRNA
    a structural component of ribosomes that, along with tRNA, helps translate messages from mRNA
  176. what is the role of tRNA
    bind to amino acids and pair with bases of codons of mRNA at ribosome to begin process of protein synthesis
  177. what is protein synthesis
    • - DNA is the master blueprint
    • - deals with the coding of an amino acid
  178. what is a gene
    segment of DNA with blueprint for one polypeptide
  179. what is a triplet
    specifies a particular amino acid
  180. what is transcription
    transfers DNA gene base sequence to a complementary base sequence of an mRNA
  181. transcription factors
    • - loosens histones from DNA in area to be transcribed
    • - binds to promotor, a DNA sequence specifying start site of gene to be transcribed
    • - mediates the binding of RNA polymerase to promotor
  182. what is RNA polymerses role in transcription
    • - enzyme that oversees synthesis of mRNA
    • - unwinds DNA template
    • - adds complementary RNA nucleotides on DNA template and joins them together
    • - stops when it reaches termination signal
    • - mRNA pulls off the DNA template, is further processed by enzymes, and enters cytosol
  183. what is translation
    • - converts base sequence of nucleic acids into the amino acid sequence of proteins
    • involves all 3 types of RNA
  184. what is the genetic code
    each three-base sequence on DNa is represented by a codon
  185. codon
    complementary three-base sequence on mRNA
  186. t or f

    anticodon of a tRNA binds to its complementary codon and adds its amino acid to the forming protein chain
  187. what is the role of rough ER
    • ribosome complex is directed to rough ER by a signal-recognition particle (SRP)
    • - forming protein enters the ER
    • - sugar groups may be added to the protein, and its shape may be altered
    • - protein is enclosed in a vesicle for transport to golgi apparatus
  188. what is the wear and tear theory
    - little chemical insults and free radicals have cumulative effects
  189. immune system disorders
    autoimmune responses and progressive weakening of the immune response
  190. genetic theory
    cessation of mitosis and cell aging are programmed into genes