Embryo 1

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Author:
HLW
ID:
36458
Filename:
Embryo 1
Updated:
2010-09-22 22:27:46
Tags:
Embryo
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Description:
Terminology
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  1. Prenatal Period
    • Development -> Birth
    • drastic changes
  2. Postnatal Period
    After birth, slow changes, followed by aging
  3. pre-embryonic
    development of gametes -> implantation
  4. Embryonic Period
    implantation -> primordia of organs and basic body form
  5. Fetal Period
    Maturation of organ systems with specialized functions
  6. Embryo
    developing offspring during embgyonic period
  7. Fetus
    Developing offspring during fetl period
  8. Conceptus
    Embryo/fetus and membranes
  9. tetrology
    branch of embryo concerned w/ malformations
  10. Otogeny
    INDIVIDUALS life history, fertilization to death
  11. Phylogeny
    Ancestoral history
  12. Gametogenesis
    Germplasm -> gametes that are capable of uniting and producing a new individual
  13. Spermatogenesis (which occurs when?)
    development of sperm cells (after puberty)
  14. spermatocytogenesis
    Formation of the cell
  15. spermiogenesis
    specific changes to the cell
  16. Type-B speratogonia ->
    primary spermatocytes
  17. During Spermiogenesis...
    Chromatin ->
    Golgi Apparatus ->
    Centriole ->
    Mitochondria ->
    • Chromatin -> Head
    • Golgi Apparatus -> Acrosomal Cap
    • Centriole -> Flagellum
    • Mitochondria -> Middle Piece
  18. What is ovulated in horses and dogs?
    Primary Oocyte
  19. What is ovulated in most animals?
    Secondary Oocyte
  20. During oogenesis, the second meiotic division occurs after ____ and results in _____ and ______
    • ...after fertilizaton....
    • ...and results in ovum and second polar body
  21. Ovulation is controlled by:
    • FSH
    • LH
  22. Ruptured follicles -> ____ -> _____
    corpeus luteum -> progesterone
  23. Function of Progesterone
    • Facilitate implantation
    • Maintenance of conceptus
  24. Polytocous:
    more than one oocyte released
  25. Monotocous:
    only one oocye released
  26. Polytcous animals include:
    • bitch
    • sow
    • queen
    • small rumenants
  27. Sperm viability within F genital tract in...
    Most animals:
    Horses and Dogs:
    Most Fowl:
    Turkeys:
    • Most animals: 1-2 days
    • Horses and Dogs: 6-7 days
    • Most Fowl: 32 days
    • Turkeys: 70 days
  28. Ovum viability:
    24 hours
  29. Fertilization occurs in the...
    Most Animals:
    Dogs:
    • Most Animals: ampullary region
    • Dogs: Infundibulum
  30. Capacitation:
    removal of glycoprtein coat and seminal plasma proteins covering acrosomal region
  31. Acrosomal Reaction:
    Following cacitation, the release of enzymes to help penetrate oocyte
  32. Zona Reaction:
    prevents polyspermy
  33. Results of Fertilization (4):
    • 2-cell zygote
    • Diploid
    • Determination of sex
    • Cleavage initiated
  34. Monozygous:
    One ovum fertilized -> same sex, blood group
  35. Dizygous:
    2 ova fertilized
  36. Monozyous twinning can occur at... (3)
    • 1. 2-cell stage
    • 2. Splitting of Inner Cell Mass early in development (share placenta and chorionic sa)
    • 3. Splitting of Inner Cell Mass late in development (share everything)
  37. Possible results of dizygous twinning (2):
    • Placenta Fused
    • Blood shunted to one embryo by anastomoses
  38. Freemartins are the result of
    dizigous twinning -> common circulation be anastomosis
  39. Superfecundation:
    • Impregnation by successive matings:
    • 2+ ovum liberatd by 2+ males
  40. Superfetation:
    Female ovulates, concieves and prduces a 2nd younger fetus
  41. Superfecundation occurs in:
    • dogs
    • cats
  42. superfetation occus in:
    pigs
  43. cleavage:
    series of mitotic divisions, w/o an increase in size
  44. Cleavage leads to the formation of ->
    blastomeres
  45. Characteristics of holoblastic cleavage (yolk and division):
    • Small amount of yolk
    • Complete division of zygote
  46. Characteristics of meroblastic cleavage (yolk and division):
    • Lots of yolk
    • vleavage is not complete
  47. After 4-6 divisions, zygote results in the formation of...
    Morula
  48. Embryonic Disc/Inner Cell Mass
    Small cells that form embryo
  49. Trophoblasts cells-
    Cells on periphery of bastocyst that facilitate absorption early in development
  50. What occurs during Blastogenesis:
    • Blastomeres -> fluid filled cavity
    • Zona Pellucida ruptures
    • Increase in size
    • Change in Embryonic shape
  51. What occurs duing gastrulation:
    Embryonic Disc -> 3 Germ Layers
  52. What occurs during the formation of the endoderm (2)?
    • Delamination (inner cell mass detaches)
    • Formation endoderm and primitive gut
  53. What occurs duringtheformation of the ectoderm?
    • Cells in upper layer of inner cell mass -> expansion -> ectoderm
    • trophoblast dissapears
  54. Nucleus Propulses is formed from the...
    notochord
  55. Notochord is formed from the
    primitive node
  56. Neural Ectoderm forms from the
    notochord

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