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What are the two organ systems?
Nervous and the endocrine system
What do the nervous and endocrine systems do?
Coordinate and direct activities of other organ systems.
What provides swift, brief responses to stimuli
What system adjusts metabolic operations and directs long-term changes?
What compresses all NERUAL TISSUE in the body?
What are the anatomical subdivisions of the Nervous System?
Central Nervous System (CNS) the brain and spinal cord
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) all of the neural tissue outside the CNS: somatic, autonomic and special visceral sensory receptors
The Nervous System is subdivided into what?
Afferent division does what?
Transmits sensory information from somatic and visceral receptors to the CNS
What carries motor commands to muscles and glands?
The efferent division includes what?
Somatic nervous system(SNS) voluntary control over skeletal muscle contractions
Autonomic nervous system(ANS) automatic involuntary regulation of smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glandular activity are under the control of the parasympathetic and sympathetic.
Receptors may be classified as _______ and ___________.
Somatic and visceral
What are the two types of cells in neural tissue?
Neurons and Neuroglia (glial cells)
What are neurons?
Neurons are responsible for information transfer and processing
What are neuroglia?
Supporting cells in the nervous system
A typical neuron has what?
A cell body (soma)
Axon (carries information in the form of nerve impulses)
What are the 4 types of neuroglia in the CNS?
- 1. Astrocytes
- 2. Oligodendrocytes
- 3. Microglia
- 4. Ependymal Cells
What are the 5 functions of Astrocytes?
- 1. largest most numerous glial cells
- 2. maintain the blood-brain barrier to isolate the CNS from the general circulation
- 3. provides structural support for the CNS
- 4. regulate ion and nutrient concentrations
- 5. Perform repairs repairs to stabilize the tissue and prevent further injury
What are the functions of the Oligodendrocytes?
1. wraps the CNS axons in a membran sheath termed myelin
Gaps between the myelin wrappings along the axon are called_____?
Nodes of Ranvier
The large areas wrapped in myelin are______?
Regions primarily containing myelinated axons appear glossy white and are termed _______?
_______ are the smallest nuroglial?
What are Microglias?
- 1. Phagoycytic cells that engulf cellular debris, waste products, and pathogens.
- 2. They increase in number as a result of infection or injury.
What are Ependymal Cells?
1. Atypical cells that line chambers and passageways filled with CFS in the brain and spinal cord.
2. They assist in producing, circulating, and monitoring CSF
Neuron cell bodies in the PNS are clustered into _______ and their axons form ____________.
The PNS glial cell types are ______ and _________.
satellite cells and Schwann Cells
______ cover all peripheral axons, whether myelinated or unmyelinated.
Schwann cells (neurolemmocytes)
_______ cells enclose neuron cell bodies in ganglia.
What is a perikaryon?
the perikaryon of a neuron is the cytoplasm surrounding the nucleus.
What does a perikaryon contain?
Organelles: neurofilaments, neurontubules, and neurofibrils (these extend into the dendrites and axon)
What is an axon hillock?
A specialized region of an axon.
What does an axon hillock connect?
the initial segment of the axon to the cell body.
What is axoplasm?
The cytoplasm of the axon which contains numerous organelles.
______ are side branches from an axon.
______ are a series of fine, terminal extensions branching from the axon tip.
What is a synapse?
a site of intercellular communication between neuron and another cell.
__________ is located where one neuron synapses on another.
What does synaptic communication usually involve?
The release of specific chemicals called NEUROTRANSMITTERS
What are the 3 functional categories of neurons?
- 1. Sensory neurons
- 2. Motor neurons
- 3. Interneurons (association neurons)